Detection of Postnatal Depression

  title={Detection of Postnatal Depression},
  author={John L. Cox and Jenifer M Holden and R. Sagovsky},
  journal={British Journal of Psychiatry},
  pages={782 - 786}
The development of a 10-item self-report scale (EPDS) to screen for Postnatal Depression in the community is described. After extensive pilot interviews a validation study was carried out on 84 mothers using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for depressive illness obtained from Goldberg's Standardised Psychiatric Interview. The EPDS was found to have satisfactory sensitivity and specficity, and was also sensitive to change in the severity of depression over time. The scale can be completed in… 

The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: validation on a Swedish community sample

This study supports the validity of the EPDS shown in earlier studies, and indicates that the scale is a useful screening instrument for identifying postnatal depression in primary health care in Sweden.

Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in Chilean postpartum women.

The EPDS was shown to be a useful screening instrument for postnatal depression in these settings and was found to be the best cut-off point by other Chilean investigators in a sample of working-class women.

The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: Validation for an Australian Sample

Although this study supported the validity of the EPDS, a replication of this study on a larger sample of post-partum women is suggested.

The use of Rating Scales to Identify Post-natal Depression

The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Beck scale were compared in their abilities to identify the 15% of subjects who had major depression according to DSM-III criteria.



Prospective Study of the Psychiatric Disorders of Childbirth

A representative sample of 105 women were assessed by Goldberg's Standardised Psychiatric Interview (SPI) on two occasions during pregnancy and twice more in the puerperium after childbirth, finding women with severe postnatal blues were particularly at risk of developing persistent depressive symptoms subsequently.

Validation of the 30-item General Health Questionnaire in postpartum women

Analysis of the results indicates that slight modification of the content and a raised cut-off point of the GHQ-30 make it a useful screening instrument for postpartum psychiatric disorder.

The hospital anxiety and depression scale.

It is suggested that the introduction of the scales into general hospital practice would facilitate the large task of detection and management of emotional disorder in patients under investigation and treatment in medical and surgical departments.

An inventory for measuring depression.

The difficulties inherent in obtaining consistent and adequate diagnoses for the purposes of research and therapy have been pointed out and a wide variety of psychiatric rating scales have been developed.


  • W. Zung
  • Psychology
    Archives of general psychiatry
  • 1965
The general depression scales used were felt to be insufficient for the purpose of this research project and the more specific scales were also inadequate.

The Hospital Anxiety And Depression Scale

  • R. Snaith
  • Medicine, Psychology
    British Journal of Psychiatry
  • 1988
The Hospital Anxiety And Depression Scale, or HADS, was designed to provide a simple yet reliable tool for use in medical practice and many studies conducted throughout the world have confirmed that it is valid when used in community settings and primary care medical practice.

A standardized psychiatric interview for use in community surveys.

A standardized psychiatric interview has been constructed to meet the following requirements: Psychiatric assessment should be made by an experienced psychiatrist in a realistic ciinical setting and the interview should be acceptable to indi viduals who may not see themselves as psychiatrically disturbed.

A Clinical Scale for the Self-assessment of Irritability

A self-assessment scale has been constructed which seeks to overcome faults of existing scales and is known as the Irritability, Depression, Anxiety--or IDA--Scale.

Postnatal Depression and Child Development

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