Mitophagy Controls the Activities of Tumor Suppressor p53 to Regulate Hepatic Cancer Stem Cells.
Mitochondrial quality and quantity are not only regulated by mitochondrial fusion and fission but also by mitochondria degradation. Mitophagy, an autophagy specific for damaged or unnecessary mitochondria, is believed to be an important pathway for mitochondrial homeostasis. To date, several stimuli are known to induce mitophagy. Some of these stimuli, however, including hypoxia, iron depletion, and nitrogen starvation, induce mild mitophagy, which is difficult to detect through decreased mitochondrial mass. Recently, we have clearly detected mitophagy induced under these conditions using mito-Keima as a reporter. In this chapter, we describe the protocols for induction and detection of hypoxia-induced and iron depletion-induced mitophagy using mito-Keima-expressed cells.