Detection of Campylobacter and Escherichia coli O157:H7 from filth flies by polymerase chain reaction

  title={Detection of Campylobacter and Escherichia coli O157:H7 from filth flies by polymerase chain reaction},
  author={Allen L. Szalanski and Carrie B. Owens and Tanja Mckay and C. Dayton Steelman},
  journal={Medical and Veterinary Entomology},
Abstract.  Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) that breed in faeces and other organic refuse (filth flies) have been implicated as vectors of pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7, which cause haemorrhagic colitis in humans, and Campylobacter, which is the principal causative agent of human enteritis. The potential role of filth flies in the epidemiology of these pathogens in the United States was investigated by examining the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and E. coli O157:H7 from two… 
Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and E. coli O157:H7 carried by filth flies (Diptera: Muscidae) associated with turkey production facilities
It is recommended that fly control be targeted towards flies found within poultry facilities and especially towards female flies, which carry a greater proportion of bacterial pathogens.
Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 From House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) and Dairy Samples in North Central Florida
Ind isolation of pathogens directly from house flies provides information about the potential human health impact that house fly dispersal can have because of pathogen distribution, and flies appear to offer a promising alternative in efforts to detect E. coli O157:H7 in dairy farms, restaurants, processing plants, and other establishments.
Campylobacter jejuni in Musca domestica: An examination of survival and transmission potential in light of the innate immune responses of the house flies
This insect likely serves as a mechanical vector rather than as a true biological, amplifying vector for C. jejuni, and adds to the understanding of insect–pathogen interactions.
Detection and identification of food-borne pathogens of the genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter by multiplex PCR in poultry and poultry products.
  • C. Neubauer, M. Hess
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of veterinary medicine. B, Infectious diseases and veterinary public health
  • 2006
The developed PCR is a helpful diagnostic tool to detect and differentiate Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter isolated from poultry and poultry products.
The study demonstrated the presence of E. coli 0157:H7 in flies found at irrigation site not directly connected to animal farm- yard, and in strong relationship with other enterobacteriaceae.
Influxed insects as vectors for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Danish broiler houses.
The influx of large numbers of flies to broiler houses constitutes a considerable risk for infection of broilers with C. jejuni and C. coli, and the influx of insects correlated with the flow of ventilation air and with the outdoor temperature.
Escherichia coli O157:H7: animal reservoir and sources of human infection.
Strains of EHEC O157:H7 exhibit high genetic variability but typically a small number of genetic types predominate in groups of cattle and a farm environment and Transmission to people occurs primarily via ingestion of inadequately processed contaminated food or water and less frequently through contact with manure, animals, or infected people.
House Flies in the Confined Cattle Environment Carry Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli
This is the first study reporting the isolation of non-O157 STEC in house flies from the confined cattle environment and indicating a potential role of this insect as a vector and reservoir of non -O157STEC in confined beef cattle.
Retention of Campylobacter (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) in the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)
The results showed that the time C. jejuni remained in flies declined over time with ascending temperatures and when reducing the inoculation dose, and it was suggested that house flies are mainly short distance carriers of C.Jejuni.
Review of the Carriage of Zoonotic Bacteria by Arthropods, with Special Reference to Salmonella in Mites, Flies and Litter Beetles
There appears to be a role for flies, at least, in the breaching of biosecurity around Campylobacter‐negative flocks, and there is some field and experimental evidence to support arthropod‐mediated transmission between poultry flocks.


Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) at a cattle farm in Japan.
Results indicate that the house fly is capable of carrying the toxigenic EHEC O157:H7 involved in human disease.
Rapid and sensitive detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bovine faeces by a multiplex PCR
Results indicate that the multiplex PCR assay can be used for specific identification and profiling of E. coli O157:H7 isolates, and may be applied to rapid and sensitive detection of the organism in bovine faeces when combined with an enrichment step.
Detection of Aeromonas caviae in the common housefly Musca domestica by culture and polymerase chain reaction
The APW–PCR method provided a rapid, convenient way to identify A. caviae from faeces and houseflies that contained hundreds of bacterial species.
Isolation of Salmonella spp. from the housefly, Musca domestica L., and the dump fly, Hydrotaea aenescens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Muscidae), at caged-layer houses.
In this study, flies were collected at caged-layer facilities that had produced eggs that were implicated as the food vehicle in two recent outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis infections.
House flies (Musca domestica) as possible vectors of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni
The results indicate that flies may play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter infection in humans by transmitting campylobacters from animals to human food.
Isolation of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 and other Shiga-like-toxin-producing E. coli from dairy cattle
This investigation demonstrates that dairy cattle are a reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 and other SLTEC.
A simple polymerase chain reaction technique to detect and differentiate Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli in human feces.
Flies and water as reservoirs for bacterial enteropathogens in urban and rural areas in and around Lahore, Pakistan
Results of the study showed that flies and water were reservoirs for all the four pathogens, campylobacter, ETEC-LT, shigella and salmonella, which meant that the incidence of diarrhoeal disease in children of developing countries may be decreased by providing plenty of safe drinking water, improving excreta disposal, toilet facilities and giving education in personal hygiene.
Use of the flagellar H7 gene as a target in multiplex PCR assays and improved specificity in identification of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains
The multiplex PCR assays described allow for the specific identification of E. coli O157:H7 or NM and other EHEC strains and vt, eaeA, and fliC PCR products were observed with DNAs from the majority of EH EC strains.
Epidemiological Potential of Excretion and Regurgitation by Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) in the Dissemination of Escherichia coli O157: H7 to Food
Results show that frequent excretion potentially enhances the dissemination of EHEC to foods, particularly during the first 24 h after ingestion of the bacteria.