OBJECTIVES To describe Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a series of clinical cases over a 12-month period, report the use of quantitative PCR on broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and investigate the -possibility of previously undiagnosed angiostrongylosis in a retrospective cohort of coughing and healthy dogs. METHODS Pulmonary angiostrongylosis was diagnosed based on compatible clinical signs and positive quantitative PCR on broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and/or positive Baermann examination. Quantitative PCR was also performed retrospectively on broncho-alveolar lavage fluid from 65 dogs (55 coughing and 10 healthy dogs), examined between 2008 and 2014; results of Baermann examination were also available in 33 dogs. RESULTS Seven young adult dogs from Southeastern Belgium with respiratory clinical signs were diagnosed with angiostrongylosis between March 2013 and April 2014. Positive broncho-alveolar lavage fluid quantitative PCR results and positive Baermann examination were obtained in 5/5 and 2/5 dogs, respectively. In the remaining two dogs, only Baermann analysis was performed. Among the retrospective cohorts, only one broncho-alveolar lavage fluid from a coughing dog was quantitative PCR-positive whereas all faecal samples were negative. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Until recently, canine angiostrongylosis was not reported in Belgium. It should now be included in the differential diagnosis of coughing Belgian dogs. Identification of affected dogs may be aided by quantitative PCR on broncho-alveolar lavage fluid.