A basic understanding of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, which, together with T-cell receptors, is a key player in antigen recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, is necessary to study the cellular immune response to intracellular pathogens. The MHC has hardly been reported in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca facicularis), although cynomolgus monkeys have been frequently used as the surrogate animal model. We attempted to determine the nucleotide sequences of the MHC class I A locus of cynomolgus monkeys (Mafa-A) and eventually 34 independent sequences of Mafa-A were obtained from 29 cynomolgus monkeys. These 34 sequences were classified into 14 Mafa-A alleles according to the results of phylogenetic analyses using the neighbor-joining method. One to three Mafa-A alleles were obtained from a single animal. We also tried to establish a multiplex PCR-SSP method for convenient typing of Mafa-A alleles. cDNA from a family of cynomolgus monkeys, which is composed of four sirs and four dams, were examined by multiplex PCR-SSP. The result of multiplex PCR-SSP showed that an individual cynomolgus monkey had two or three Mafa-A alleles, suggesting that the A locus of cynomolgus monkeys might be duplicated.