Identification of ciprofloxacin resistance by SimpleProbe, High Resolution Melt and Pyrosequencing nucleic acid analysis in biothreat agents: Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis and Francisella tularensis.
Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been used extensively to detect genetic variation. We used this method to detect and identify Yersinia pestis KIM5 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates by analyzing the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the gyrase A gene. Sequencing of the Y. pestis KIM5 strain gyrA QRDR from 55 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates revealed five mutation types. We analyzed the gyrA QRDR by DHPLC to assess its ability to detect point mutations and to determine whether DHPLC peak profile analysis could be used as a molecular fingerprint. In addition to the five mutation types found in our ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, several mutations in the QRDR were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and analyzed to further evaluate this method for the ability to detect QRDR mutations. Furthermore, a blind panel of 42 samples was analyzed by screening for two mutant types to evaluate the potential diagnostic value of this method. Our results showed that DHPLC is an efficient method for detecting mutations in genes that confer antibiotic resistance.