Influence of survivin (BIRC5) and caspase-9 (CASP9) functional polymorphisms in renal cell carcinoma development: a study in a southern European population
A proportion of individuals vaccinated with live attenuated Oka varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine subsequently develop attenuated chicken pox and/or herpes zoster. To determine whether postvaccination varicella infections are caused by vaccine or wild-type virus, a simple method for distinguishing the vaccine strain from wild-type virus is required. We have developed a TaqMan real-time PCR assay to detect and differentiate wild-type virus from Oka vaccine strains of VZV. The assay utilized two fluorogenic, minor groove binding probes targeted to a single nucleotide polymorphism in open reading frame 62 that distinguishes the Oka vaccine from wild-type strains. VZV DNA could be genotyped and quantified within minutes of thermocycling completion due to real-time monitoring of PCR product formation and allelic discrimination analysis. The allelic discrimination assay was performed in parallel with two standard PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods on 136 clinical and laboratory VZV strains from Canada, Australia, and Japan. The TaqMan assay exhibited a genotyping accuracy of 100% and, when compared to both PCR-RFLP methods, was 100 times more sensitive. In addition, the method was technically simpler and more rapid. The TaqMan assay also allows for high-throughput genotyping, making it ideal for epidemiologic study of the live attenuated varicella vaccine.