Merotelic kinetochore orientation is a kinetochore-microtubule mis-attachment in which a single kinetochore binds microtubules to both spindle poles, rather than just one. Merotelic attachments occur frequently in early mitosis and can induce anaphase lagging chromosomes and aneuploidy if not corrected before anaphase onset. Merotelic kinetochore orientation does not interfere with chromosome alignment at the metaphase plate and does not activate the mitotic spindle checkpoint. However, a correction mechanism for merotelic attachment reduces the number of merotelic kinetochores entering anaphase, thus preventing chromosome mis-segregation. Results from many different studies support the idea that Aurora B kinase plays a critical role in this merotelic correction mechanism by phosphorylating key substrates at the kinetochore and promoting turnover of kinetochore microtubules. In addition, recent studies are starting to identify the possible 'sensors' of the system that would be able to detect the mis-attachment and communicate this to Aurora B. Here, I review these studies and discuss a model for how merotelic kinetochore orientation could be detected and corrected before anaphase onset.