Detection Time of Drugs of Abuse in Urine

@article{Vandevenne2000DetectionTO,
  title={Detection Time of Drugs of Abuse in Urine},
  author={Marleen Vandevenne and Heather L Vandenbussche and Alain G. Verstraete},
  journal={Acta Clinica Belgica},
  year={2000},
  volume={55},
  pages={323 - 333}
}
Abstract Estimating the detection time of a drug in urine is complex because of many different influencing factors and the lack of experimental data. Detection times vary depending on dose and route of administration, metabolism and characteristics of the screening and confirmation assays. Using a cut-off value of 1000 ng/mL, urinary samples can be positive for amphetamine for up to 5 days after intake of the drug. At the lower 300 ng/mL cut-off, amphetamine will be detectable one day longer… 
Detection Times of Drugs of Abuse in Blood, Urine, and Oral Fluid
TLDR
The detection times depend mainly on the dose and sensitivity of the method used, the preparation and route of administration, the duration of use, the matrix that is analyzed, the molecule or metabolite that is looked for, the pH and concentration of the matrix (urine, oral fluid), and the interindividual variation in metabolic and renal clearance.
Analysis of drugs of abuse in Cerumen - correlation of postmortem analysis results with those for blood, urine and hair.
TLDR
Cerumen, a mixture of sebum and sweat, was tested as an alternative and suggested that cerumen is a promising alternative for drugs of abuse testing, with a detection time window in excess of that of urine but not as long as with hair.
Times of Detection of Drugs of Abuse in Saliva: Study of Arrested Population
TLDR
It is important to stand out the high rate of cocaine positive results in relation with the time passed and abstinence consumption of 1-3 days, as oral fluid may be a good sample for cocaine detection in drug consumers.
Significantly increased detection rate of drugs of abuse in urine following the introduction of new German driving licence re-granting guidelines.
TLDR
The present MPA guidelines seem to be more effective to detect non-abstinence from drugs of abuse and hence to detecting drivers who do not yet fulfil the MPA requirements to regain their revoked driving licence.
Simultaneous liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry quantification of urinary opiates, cocaine, and metabolites in opiate-dependent pregnant women in methadone-maintenance treatment.
TLDR
Of interest is the differential pattern of opiate and cocaine biomarkers observed after LC-MS as compared to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.
New Methods for Neonatal Drug Screening
TLDR
This article describes perinatal and neonatal complications of maternal use of cocaine, alcohol, opiates, and barbiturates in pregnancy and the role of fatty acid ethyl esters in detecting prenatal alcohol exposure.
Urine drug testing for opioids, cocaine, and metabolites by direct injection liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
TLDR
The method proved to be simple and time efficient, and was applicable for illicit drug use monitoring and methadone treatment compliance in clinical research projects at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).
Position of chromatographic techniques in screening for detection of drugs or poisons in clinical and forensic toxicology and/or doping control
  • H. Maurer
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine
  • 2004
TLDR
GC-MS may become the gold standard in clinical and forensic toxicology and doping control if the costs of the apparatus will be markedly reduced, the current disadvantages like irreproducibility of fragmentation, reduction of ionization by matrix, etc. will be overcome, and finally if one of the increasing number of quite different techniques will become the apparatus standard.
Immunoassay in Toxicology Diagnosis
TLDR
Toxicological diagnostics is consequence, enables to make distinction if observed patient’s symptoms are correlated to poisoning or other reasons, and fast quantitative measurement is important for poisoning confirmation, prognosis and decisions about specific treatment.
Point of Care Devices for Drugs of Abuse Testing
  • V. Luzzi
  • Medicine
    Critical Issues in Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse Testing
  • 2019
Abstract Point of care testing (POCT) devices are available for bedside or physician’s office testing of drugs of abuse using either urine specimen or oral fluid. Advantage of such testing is rapid
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 59 REFERENCES
Validity testing of commercial urine cocaine metabolite assays: I. Assay detection times, individual excretion patterns, and kinetics after cocaine administration to humans.
TLDR
A validity study of eight commercial urine assays for detection of cocaine metabolite was performed on clinical specimens collected from human subjects who received single 20-mg intravenous doses of cocaine hydrochloride, finding a commercial spot test which produced both false positives and false negatives for benzoylecgonine was not considered to be a valid test.
Detection times of marijuana metabolites in urine by immunoassay and GC-MS.
TLDR
Results indicate that recent reductions in cannabinoid cutoffs by military and federally mandated programs will increase detection times and improve sensitivity, as expected, but monitoring acute marijuana usage with a commercial cannabinoid immunoassay that has a 50-ng/mL cutoff concentration provides only a narrow window of detection of 1-2 days.
Forensic drug testing for opiates: I. Detection of 6-acetylmorphine in urine as an indicator of recent heroin exposure; drug and assay considerations and detection times.
TLDR
The presence of 6-AM in urine can be interpreted with confidence to mean that heroin, or 6- AM, was administered within 24 h of specimen collection and that the presence of 5-AM is not caused by morphine or codeine administration.
Urinary excretion of d-amphetamine following oral doses in humans: implications for urine drug testing.
TLDR
The data demonstrate that amphetamine excretion increases with increasing urine flow and decreasing urine pH, and a positive FUDT result for amphetamine means only that the individual was administered or self-administered amphetamine at some time prior to collection of the specimen.
Forensic drug testing for opiates. VII. Urinary excretion profile of intranasal (snorted) heroin.
TLDR
Overall, intranasal administration of heroin produced a similar profile of excretion of heroin metabolites to intramuscular administration.
Urine concentrations of ecgonine from specimens with low benzoylecgonine levels using a new ecgonine assay.
TLDR
By monitoring ecgonine alone or in conjunction with benzoylecgonine, the number of cocaine positives detected in urine could be dramatically increased.
Protracted elimination of cocaine metabolites in long-term high-dose cocaine abusers.
TLDR
Three cases of veryhigh-dose cocaine abuse are reported, in which benzoylecgonine continued to be detected for 10 to 22 days after cessation of cocaine intake, and some authors have suggested that cocaine disposition or metabolism may vary with the amount or frequency of drug intake.
Importance of creatinine analyses of urine when screening for abused drugs.
TLDR
A simple method involving urine creatine measurements for testing authenticity and reducing false-negative results in urine testing for drugs of abuse is reported, in a formerly heavy smoker of cannabis.
Occupational exposure to cocaine involving crime lab personnel.
TLDR
Gloves, face masks, and goggles prove to be effective in minimizing exposure and decreasing the levels of airborne cocaine dust appears to minimize the amount of cocaine absorbed by the criminalists.
Screening for Drugs of Abuse. I: Opiates, Amphetamines and Cocaine
TLDR
In order to provide an efficient and reliable service for drugs of abuse screening in urine, the laboratory should analyse 20-30 samples per week, and the staff should include a scientist with special expertise in the subject, according to the manufacturer's protocols or by modified methods that have been rigorously validated.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...