Detecting transient emotional responses with improved self-report measures and instructions.

@article{HarmonJones2016DetectingTE,
  title={Detecting transient emotional responses with improved self-report measures and instructions.},
  author={Cindy Harmon-Jones and Brock Bastian and Eddie Harmon-Jones},
  journal={Emotion},
  year={2016},
  volume={16 7},
  pages={
          1086-96
        }
}
Psychological research often yields null results on self-reported emotion as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), even when using manipulations that might intuitively be expected to be emotionally impactful. Three studies reported here support the hypothesis that changes in self-reported negative emotion may be detected more sensitively when discrete emotions are measured rather than by either PANAS NA or a measure created by combining… 

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