Detecting transient emotional responses with improved self-report measures and instructions.

  title={Detecting transient emotional responses with improved self-report measures and instructions.},
  author={Cindy Harmon-Jones and Brock Bastian and Eddie Harmon-Jones},
  volume={16 7},
Psychological research often yields null results on self-reported emotion as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), even when using manipulations that might intuitively be expected to be emotionally impactful. Three studies reported here support the hypothesis that changes in self-reported negative emotion may be detected more sensitively when discrete emotions are measured rather than by either PANAS NA or a measure created by combining… 

Figures from this paper

The Jingle and Jangle of Emotion Assessment: Imprecise Measurement, Casual Scale Usage, and Conceptual Fuzziness in Emotion Research
The self-report measurement practices regularly used for the purpose of assessing momentary distinct emotions are reviewed, finding that researchers assess many purportedly distinct emotions, a number that differs substantially from previously developed emotion taxonomies.
The anger incentive delay task: A novel method for studying anger in neuroscience research.
A novel task that allows for the trial-by-trial manipulation of anger and the examination of associated ERPs is presented and results indicated that participants reported the most anger after trials where goal pursuit was frustrated by monetary losses despite accurate responses.
Dissonance and Discomfort: Does a Simple Cognitive Inconsistency Evoke a Negative Affective State?
Festinger (1957) described cognitive dissonance as psychological discomfort that resulted from a cognitive inconsistency. Discussion of dissonance for the past 60 years has focused on the classic
Pain offset reduces rumination in response to evoked anger and sadness.
The results suggest that the regulation of anger and sadness are improved following pain offset, and individuals engaged in less rumination in the pain conditions as measured by a thought-listing task and a self-reported rumination questionnaire.
On motivational influences, moving beyond valence, and integrating dimensional and discrete views of emotion
The field of cognition and emotion needs to move beyond a focus on affective valence and it needs to consider an integration of dimensional and discrete models of emotion, which includes some suggestions for improving methods of measuring and inducing emotions.
Imagine How Good That Feels: The Impact of Anticipated Positive Emotions on Motivation for Reward Activities
Disease burden and unsatisfactory treatment outcomes call for innovation in treatments of depression. Prospective mental imagery, i.e. future-directed voluntary imagery-based thought, about
Reactive Risk-Taking: Anxiety Regulation Via Approach Motivation Increases Risk-Taking Behavior.
Three studies test whether the regulation of anxiety via reactive approach motivation (RAM) leaves people less sensitive to negative outcomes and thus more likely to take risks, and offer preliminary support for the reactive risk-taking hypothesis.
The Impact of Moral-Based Appraisals on Psychological Outcomes in Response to Analogue Trauma: An Experimental Paradigm of Moral Injury
Background There is evidence that negative appraisals about events violating moral expectations (i.e., moral injury) may contribute to psychological outcomes (i.e., non-fear reactions, intrusive
Sparking Anger and Anxiety: Why Intense Leader Anger Displays Trigger Both More Deviance and Higher Work Effort in Followers
While previous research has assumed that intense leader anger displays result in negative consequences, researchers have recently started to outline their potential for prompting followers to improve


Approach temperament, anger, and evaluation: resolving a paradox.
It is proposed that evaluation--endorsing items of similar valence regardless of their semantic content--confounds the self-reported structure of mood, and isolating evaluation generates a self- reported structure of Mood that aligns more closely with experimental investigations.
The Discrete Emotions Questionnaire: A New Tool for Measuring State Self-Reported Emotions
Four studies are presented that validate a new instrument, the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ), that is sensitive to eight distinct state emotions: anger, disgust, fear, anxiety, sadness, happiness, relaxation, and desire.
A Dynamic Model of Guilt
It is proposed that guilt functions dynamically to first provide a negative reinforcement cue associated with reduced approach motivation, which transforms into approach-motivated behavior when an opportunity for reparation presents itself, which supports a dynamic model in which guilt is associated with adaptive changes in motivation and behavior.
PANAS positive activation is associated with anger.
The counterintuitive hypotheses thatpositive affect should be increased by anger-evoking situations, and that positive affect and anger should be directly correlated in such situations are supported.
Toward a greater understanding of the emotional dynamics of the mortality salience manipulation: revisiting the "affect-free" claim of terror management research.
This work proposes that the MS manipulation can, in fact, produce significant and meaningful changes in affect once one employs the appropriate measures and experimental design, and reports 4 experiments, each of which demonstrates reliable activation of negative affect, especially with respect to fear-/terror-related sentiments.
I Think I Am Doing Great but I Feel Pretty Bad About It
  • T. Holtgraves
  • Psychology
    Personality & social psychology bulletin
  • 2015
The research contributes to the literature demonstrating the subtle effects of word choice on responses to self-report items.
The tie that binds? Coherence among emotion experience, behavior, and physiology.
Findings provide new evidence about response system coherence in emotions by examining the within-individual associations among experiential, facial behavioral, and peripheral physiological responses during emotional responding and whether emotion intensity moderates these associations.
Traces of Terror: Subliminal Death Primes and Facial Electromyographic Indices of Affect
Previous research has found that both explicit and implicit reminders of one's mortality provoke hostile reactions to those who threaten one's worldview, but do not create conscious negative affect
Appraisal components, core relational themes, and the emotions
Abstract This study experimentally tests the contributions of specific appraisals, considered at both molecular (appraisal components) and molar (core relational themes) levels of analysis, to the
Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes.
Evidence is reviewed which suggests that there may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. Subjects are sometimes (a) unaware of the existence of a stimulus