Desisting and persisting gender dysphoria after childhood: A qualitative follow-up study

@article{Steensma2011DesistingAP,
  title={Desisting and persisting gender dysphoria after childhood: A qualitative follow-up study},
  author={Thomas D Steensma and Roeline Biemond and Fijgje de Boer and Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis},
  journal={Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry},
  year={2011},
  volume={16},
  pages={499 - 516}
}
The aim of this qualitative study was to obtain a better understanding of the developmental trajectories of persistence and desistence of childhood gender dysphoria and the psychosexual outcome of gender dysphoric children. Twenty five adolescents (M age 15.88, range 14–18), diagnosed with a Gender Identity Disorder (DSM-IV or DSM-IV-TR) in childhood, participated in this study. Data were collected by means of biographical interviews. Adolescents with persisting gender dysphoria (persisters… 

Tables from this paper

Factors associated with desistence and persistence of childhood gender dysphoria: a quantitative follow-up study.
Gender dysphoria, gender incongruence and gender nonconformity in adolescence - changes and challenges in diagnosis.
TLDR
The present article reviews the changes in the diagnoses associated with gender identity made in the DSM and ICD classifications in recent decades, psychological health and neurodiversity of patients reporting gender dysphoria, most common models of treatment, including their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the challenges for diagnosis and treatment in work with this population.
A Follow-Up Study of Boys With Gender Identity Disorder
TLDR
Boys clinic-referred for gender identity concerns in childhood had a high rate of desistance and a high rates of a biphilic/androphilic sexual orientation and, on a dimensional composite of sex-typed behavior in childhood were more gender-variant.
Negotiating Gender in Everyday Life: Toward a Conceptual Model of Gender Dysphoria in Adolescents
TLDR
A more conceptually nuanced model of GD is suggested, one which accounts for how bodily sensations and emotional memories from the past were sources that elicited GD.
Progression of Gender Dysphoria in Children and Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study
TLDR
Female sex at birth, older age of initial GD presentation to medical care, and non-Hispanic white race and ethnicity increased the likelihood of receiving diagnosis and treatment and racial and ethnic minorities were less likely to receive a diagnosis or be prescribed GAHT.
The ICD-11 classification of gender incongruence of adolescence and adulthood: adequacy among transgender people in Lebanon
TLDR
Evaluating the adequacy of the ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines for Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood in a sample of transgender people accessing multi-disciplinary health care services at specialised organisations in Lebanon showed that Arab transgender individuals living in Lebanon report being the victims of violence, abuse, discrimination and rejection from family, peers and society in general.
Two years of gender identity service for minors: overrepresentation of natal girls with severe problems in adolescent development
TLDR
The findings do not fit the commonly accepted image of a gender dysphoric minor and treatment guidelines need to consider gender dysphoria in minors in the context of severe psychopathology and developmental difficulties.
The lived experience of gender dysphoria in autistic young people: a phenomenological study with young people and their parents
Gender dysphoria is distress in relation to incongruence between an individual’s gender and sex assigned at birth. Gender clinics offer support for gender dysphoria, and there is a higher prevalence
Gender Identity Development: A Biopsychosocial Perspective
From the first time individuals described a felt incongruence between their assigned and their experienced gender, people have been interested in the origins of gender dysphoria and transsexualism.
Empathising and Systemising in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria
TLDR
On average adolescents with GD, specifically those who are female-to-male, have lower empathy than controls, and it may be helpful to offer psychological interventions that improve their communication skills and their ability to take on board other people’s views, to support their development.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 43 REFERENCES
Psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children.
TLDR
Both boys and girls in the persistence group were more extremely cross-gendered in behavior and feelings and were more likely to fulfill gender identity disorder (GID) criteria in childhood than the children in the other two groups.
A follow-up study of girls with gender identity disorder.
TLDR
The rates of GID persistence and bisexual/homosexual sexual orientation were substantially higher than base rates in the general female population derived from epidemiological or survey studies and there was some evidence of a "dosage" effect, with girls who were more cross-sex typed in their childhood behavior more likely to be gender dysphoric at follow-up and to have been classified as bisexual/Homosexual in behavior.
Feminine behavior in boys: aspects of its outcome.
  • P. Lebovitz
  • Psychology
    The American journal of psychiatry
  • 1972
TLDR
The author studied the outcome of 16 subjects who had exhibited feminine behavior as young boys, finding there appeared to be two peaks for the age of onset of symptoms: before age six and after age ten.
The treatment of adolescent transsexuals: changing insights.
TLDR
The pros and cons of the various approaches to youngsters with GID are presented, hopefully inciting a sound scientific discussion of the issue.
A follow-up study of 10 feminine boys
TLDR
Gender dysphoria appears to be a necessary but not sufficient factor in a transsexual outcome and the strength, rigidity, and persistence of cross-gender behavior through latency may be a good predictor of transsexual outcome.
The Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Gender Role Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties
This article reports on the psychometric properties of The Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Gender Role Questionnaire, a 23-item questionnaire designed to measure recalled gender-typed behavior and
Early Effeminate Behavior in Boys: Outcome and Significance for Homosexuality
  • B. Zuger
  • Psychology
    The Journal of nervous and mental disease
  • 1984
TLDR
The conclusion is ventured that all male homosexuality begins with early effeminate behavior, which has implications for future research on homosexuality.
Questioning Gender and Sexual Identity: Dynamic Links Over Time
Dichotomous models of gender have been criticized for failing to represent the experiences of individuals who claim neither an unambiguously female nor male identity. In this paper we argue that the
Sexual Identity Conflict in Children and Adults
Verbatim data are presented from transsexual patients—children and adults—and their parents and partners. The emphasis is on men who wish to become women and to a lesser extent on women who wish to
...
...