Curcumin activates the p38MPAK-HSP25 pathway in vitro but fails to attenuate diabetic nephropathy in DBA2J mice despite urinary clearance documented by HPLC
Curcuminoids were isolated from Curcuma longa and their pyrazole and isoxazole analogues were synthesized and evaluated for antioxidant, COX-1/COX-2 inhibitory and anti-inflammatory activities. The designed analogues significantly enhance COX-2/COX-1 selectivity and possess significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema assay. Pyrazole, isoxazole analogues of curcumin (4 and 7) exhibited higher antioxidant activity than trolox. Molecular docking study revealed the binding orientations of curcumin analogues in the active sites of COX and thereby helps to design novel potent inhibitors.