Design rules based on analyses of human error

  title={Design rules based on analyses of human error},
  author={Donald A. Norman},
  journal={Commun. ACM},
  • D. Norman
  • Published 1 April 1983
  • Computer Science
  • Commun. ACM
By analyzing the classes of errors that people make with systems, it is possible to develop principles of system design that minimize both the occurrence of error and the effects. This paper demonstrates some of these principles through the analysis of one class of errors: slips of action. Slips are defined to be situations in which the user's intention was proper, but the results did not conform to that intention. Many properties of existing systems are conducive to slips; from the… 

Tables from this paper

Human error and the search for blame

Human error is a frequent topic in discussions about risks in using computer systems. A rational analysis of human error leads through the consideration of mistakes to standards that designers use to

The management of human errors in user-centered design

In the paper the main features of the user-centered approach are sketched and a set of guidelines for handling human error is presented and an example drawn from the design experience is reported for each guideline.

Using errors to direct design

Understanding the cognitive aspects of human error will increase the usability of user interfaces.

A web survey system, phpESP, will be analyzed based on the guidelines for reducing human error in user interfaces, and the analysis of the survey system can server as a guide to help designers reduce potential user errors.

When Soft Controls get Slippery: User Interfaces and Human Error

The application of design approaches for reducing the likelihood of these errors and for enhancing usability, user satisfaction, and system performance and safety are discussed.

Identifying and interpreting design errors

  • P. Booth
  • Computer Science
    Int. J. Hum. Comput. Interact.
  • 1990
A classification scheme (an Evaluative Classification of Mismatch, or ECM) for analyzing user‐system errors is defined, and a study into its usability is reported, suggesting that the ECM scheme is usable.

Error recovery in human-computer interaction: a preliminary study in a database learning environment

  • Lei Wu
  • Computer Science
    PIKM '08
  • 2008
The nature of HCI errors in interactions is identified and analyzes error episodes, recovery trials, and recovery actions using the ACCESS database and suggests systematic studies to examine how users recovered from different types of errors.

An Intelligent Human-Computer Interface for Provisionof On-Line Help

The results of a study of Unix users enabled the development of a taxonomy of error types so that users' errors can be classified, which forms the basis for the design and development of an intelligent interface to Unix.



Categorization of action slips.

A slip is the error that occurs when a person does an action that is not intended. In this article I examine several collections of slips, primarily of actions, with the aim of devising a theoretical

A Psychologist Views Human Processing: Human Errors and Other Phenomena Suggest Processing Mechanisms

It is argued that analyses of human performance imply a class of processing stuctures quite different than is commonly envisioned within Artificial Intelligence.

Descriptions: An intermediate stage in memory retrieval

Metaphors We Live by

People use metaphors every time they speak. Some of those metaphors are literary - devices for making thoughts more vivid or entertaining. But most are much more basic than that - they're "metaphors

Designing the STAR User Interface

In April 1981, Xerox announced the 8010 Star Information System, a new personal computer designed for offices that is a multifunction system combining document creation, data processing, and electronic filing, mailing, and printing.

The Structure of Analogical Models in Science.

A structural characterization of good science analogy is proposed using a theoretical approach in which complex metaphors and analogies are treated as structure-mappings between domains, to delineate good from poor science analogy.

The Interlisp Programming Environment

Integration, extensibility, and ease of modification made Interlisp unique and powerful. Its adaptations will enhance the power of the coming world of personal computing and advanced displays.

Applied Information-Processing Psychology: The Human-Computer Interface

  • Applied Information-Processing Psychology: The Human-Computer Interface
  • 1983

Aircraft incident report: Aero Mexico DC-10-30, XA-DUH over LuxembourgNTSB-AAR-80-10). National Transportation Safety Board

  • Europe
  • 1979