The larvae of four species ofEpoicocladius from eastern North America are described along with a redescription of the European species,Epoicocladius ephemerae (Kieffer). A key to known 4th instar Nearctic and western PalaearcticEpoicocladius larvae is presented. Previous species descriptions and records of NearcticEpoicocladius spp. are discussed in reference to the larvae described here. Larvae ofEpoicocladius ephemerae (Kieff.), a species described from Europe which is currently synonymized with the NearcticE. flavens, have yet to be collected in North America. This suggests that the synonymy is invalid andE. ephemerae should be considered a legitimate species. A likely candidate to be the larva ofEpoicocladius flavens (Malloch) is suggested. However, until reared adults are obtained, the larva ofE. flavens remains unknown.