Dermatosis in children with oedematous malnutrition (Kwashiorkor): a review of the literature

  title={Dermatosis in children with oedematous malnutrition (Kwashiorkor): a review of the literature},
  author={Sofine Heilskov and Maren Jh Rytter and Christian Vestergaard and Andr{\'e} Briend and E Babirekere and Mette Deleuran},
  journal={Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology},
Children with oedematous malnutrition, known as kwashiorkor, may develop a characteristic skin lesion, named ‘Dermatosis of Kwashiorkor’ (DoK). Only a few studies have been concerned with this condition, and the reason for the development of DoK remains unexplained. This study review the existing studies concerning DoK, including its clinical manifestations, histopathology, suggested pathophysiology, current treatment and prognosis for children of the age of 6 months to 5 years. Standardized… 

Nutritional Treatment of a Young Infant with Cystic Fibrosis Presenting with Severe Kwashiorkor Dermatosis.

An infant with cystic fibrosis, who developed Kwashiorkor in the third month of life with extensive cutaneous manifestations, is presented, with impressively recovery of overall nutrition and skin manifestations in a relatively short period of time.

Characterization and scoring of skin changes in severe acute malnutrition in children between 6 months and 5 years of age

Systematic investigations on the character of theSkin changes that have effect on prognosis, are needed to investigate which of the skin changes that are relevant to improve treatment.

Nutritional dermatoses in the hospitalized patient.

The risk factors for nutritional deficiency are detailed, the presentations of cutaneous disease are illustrated, diagnostic workups are reviewed, and suggestions for supplementation in the undernourished patient are provided.

Nutritional Deficiency Dermatosis with Streptococcal Sepsis in an Aboriginal Child: a Case Report

A 7-month-old baby boy succumbed to death with a history of static weight gain since 4 months of age. Autopsy revealed florid skin lesions, evidence of malnutrition, pneumonia, and meningitis.

The Immune System in Children with Malnutrition—A Systematic Review

The Immunological alterations associated with malnutrition in children may contribute to increased mortality, however, the underlying mechanisms are still inadequately understood, as well as why different types of malnutrition are associated with different immunological alterations.

Dermatologic Manifestations of Nutritional Deficiency

This review will summarize the major classifications of nutritional deficiencies with a focus on conditions relevant and of greatest impact to the geriatric population.

How to Recognize Skin Signs of Potentially Life-Threatening or Disabling Diseases (Malnutrition-Driven Skin Disorders)

Pellagra, Kwashiorkor, and hypovitaminosis A are linked to poverty because these are responsible for the occurrence still now of these diseases in the developing countries.

Management of severe acute malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries

The majority of children can be treated at home with ready-to-use therapeutic food under the community-based management of acute malnutrition model with recovery rates of approximately 90% under optimal conditions, and a small percentage of children will still require inpatient therapy using fortified milk-based foods.

Failure to Thrive in the Context of Carney Complex

Pediatric patients with CNC may present with FTT whose primary cause is variable and includes CS due to PPNAD, hepatic involvement, and other manifestations of CNC, with which clinicians need to be familiar.



The dermatosis associated with kwashiorkor in Basutoland.

  • K. E. Ground
  • Medicine
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
  • 1957

The dermatosis of kwashiorkor in young children.

When "flaky paint" dermatosis is seen in a malnourished child with edema, it is pathognomonic of the disease kwashiorkor, the other life-threatening form of PEM.


  • H. Trowell
  • Medicine
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1954
The clinical aspects of kwashiorkor are discussed, which are a study of the disease in young children, among whom the condition is far more common because of their high requirements for protein and allied substances.

Kwashiorkor in African Children in Durban

Evidence of a relationship between tuberculous infection and the onset of sarcoidosis is found, and it is suggested that contact with tuberculosis may well be a substantial rather than a minor cause.

Pellagra in African children

  • H. Trowell
  • Medicine
    Archives of disease in childhood
  • 1937
No clinical observer who has recorded cases in Africa has been able to agree that it is pellagra, but its interest for English clinicians lies in the points in which it resembles and yet differs from pink disease.

Cystic fibrosis presenting with dermatitis.

It is important to consider cystic fibrosis as a possible diagnosis in any infant presenting with a rash and other signs of malnutrition, given the frequent delay in diagnosis, as well as the increased morbidity and mortality associated with protein-energy malnutrition in these patients.

'Peeling paint' dermatitis as a presenting sign of cystic fibrosis.

Malnutrition‐Associated Rash of Cystic Fibrosis

Rash is a rare presenting sign of cystic fibrosis complicated by protein‐calorie malnutrition and appears to involve a complex interaction among deficiencies of EFAs, zinc, protein, and possibly copper, leading to disordered prostaglandin metabolism or cytokine production, or free radical‐induced damage to cellular membranes due to a lack of nutrient‐derived protective antioxidants.

Dermatitis as a presenting sign of cystic fibrosis.

Cystic fibrosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of the red, scaly infant, particularly when failure to thrive, hypoproteinemia, and edema are also present.