Derivatization in Mass Spectrometry—8. Soft Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Small Molecules

  title={Derivatization in Mass Spectrometry—8. Soft Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Small Molecules},
  author={Vladimir G Zaikin and John M. Halket},
  journal={European Journal of Mass Spectrometry},
  pages={115 - 79}
This is the first of two reviews devoted to derivatization approaches for “soft” ionization mass spectrometry (fast atom bombardment, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization, electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization) and deals, in particular, with small molecules. The principles of the main “soft” ionization mass spectrometric methods as well as the reasons for derivatizing small molecules are briefly described. Derivatization methods for modification of amines… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Permanent-Charge Generation Derivatization for the Analysis of Thiols by “Soft” Ionization Mass Spectrometry Methods

A new method is proposed for the permanent-charge generation derivatization of thiols of different structures by a reaction with haloalkanes and dibromides. It was shown that 1,4-dibromobutane and

A simple and easy approach to the derivatization of alcohols for study by soft ionization mass spectrometry methods

A simple and convenient method for the derivatization of alcohols for their subsequent analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry has been proposed. The method

Options of the Main Derivatization Approaches for Analytical ESI and MALDI Mass Spectrometry

Two main derivatization approaches, namely the introduction of permanent charge-fixed or highly proton affinitive residues into analytes are critically evaluated and the potential of using reactive matrices in MALDI-MS and chemical labeling in MS-based omics sciences is given.

An approach to analysis of primary amines by a combination of thin layer chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry in conjunction with post-chromatographic derivatization.

The proposed approach was based on post-chromatographic treatment of separated analytes inside the chromatographic zones on the thin layer chromatography plates by tris(2,6-dimethoxyphenyl)methilium reagent and revealed exceptionally intense peaks of their cationic moieties and high signal/noise ratio in mass spectra recorded directly from the plates.

Simple approach to derivatization of alcohols and phenols for the analysis by matrix(surface)-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

The suggested fixed-charge derivatization approach for the modification of alcohols is simple and does not require any expensive reagents to increase the ionization efficiency for various alcohols and phenols in specific matrix- and surface-activated LDI conditions.

Amino acid analysis via LC-MS method after derivatization with quaternary phosphonium.

(5-N-Succinimidoxy-5-oxopentyl)triphenylphosphonium bromide (SPTPP) is a highly sensitive and positively charged precolumn derivatization reagent for the analysis of amino acids in liquid

Reactive Matrices for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Primary Amines

The suggested approach, involving the application of the same reactive matrices, was applied to the determination of a number of NH2 groups in individual oligomers of branched polyethyleneimines (PEIs) by MALDI-MS, and DHAP appeared to be the best reactive matrix.

Characterization of Low-Molecular Weight Iodine-Terminated Polyethylenes by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with the Use of Derivatization

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrumetry have been applied to structure determination of individual oligomers and molecular-mass distributions (MMD) in low-molecular mass polyethylene having an iodine terminus.



Derivatization in Mass Spectrometry—5. Specific Derivatization of Monofunctional Compounds

The present paper is complementary to the foregoing reviews and describes some additional methods of the derivatization of particular functional groups mainly to enhance the structural information

Strategies for the liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of non-polar compounds.

Derivatization in Mass Spectrometry—6. Formation of Mixed Derivatives of Polyfunctional Compounds

Application of mixed derivatization to qualitative and quantitative analysis of various multifunctional compounds mainly in biological fluids and other matrices by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in electron ionization, chemical ions, negative-ion chemical ionization and selected ion monitoring modes is considered.

Derivatization of small biomolecules for optimized matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

This work investigated the application of well-known and straightforward one-pot derivatization procedures to circumvent the limitations of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Derivatization for electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. 4. Alkenes and alkynes

A survey of derivatization strategies and prospective derivatization reactions for conversion of simple alkenes and alkynes to 'electrospray-active' species is presented. General synthetic strategies

Chemical Derivatization for Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry. 2. Aromatic and Highly Conjugated Molecules

Analytes are typically detectable by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ES-MS) only if they are ionic in solution. Neutral nonpolar analytes are not generally amenable to the technique. In

Derivatization in Mass Spectrometry– 3. Alkylation (Arylation)

Alkylation (arylation) as a widely employed derivatization procedure for the protection of OH, phosphoric acids, sulfonic acids, alcohols, polyols, phenols, enols and NH groups in order to increase volatility, to improve the chromatographic properties and, if possible, mass spectral properties of derivatives.

Derivatization in Mass Spectrometry—1. Silylation

Advances in silylation as a powerful tool used for increasing the volatility, thermal and thermo-catalytic stability, and chromatographic mobility of polar and unstable organic compounds are described.

Chemical Derivatization for Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry. 1. Alkyl Halides, Alcohols, Phenols, Thiols, and Amines

Derivatization strategies and specific derivatization reactions for conversion of simple alkyl halides, alcohols, phenols, thiols, and amines to ionic or solution-ionizable derivatives, that is [open

Derivatization in Mass Spectrometry—2. Acylation

The present review is devoted to acylation as a widely employed derivatization procedure for protection of OH (alcohols, polyols, phenols, enols), SH (thiols) and NH (amines, amides) groups in order