A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for polyethylene glycol-coated gold nanoparticles of different sizes in adult mice.
The metabolic series approach for risk assessment uses a dosimetry-based analysis to develop toxicity information for a group of metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic (PK) data for each compound and toxicity data for the parent compound. The metabolic series approach for n-butyl acetate and its subsequent metabolites, n-butanol and n-butyric acid (the butyl series), was first demonstrated using a provisional physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for the butyl series. The objective of this work was to complete development of the PBPK model for the butyl series. Rats were administered test compounds by iv bolus dose, iv infusion, or by inhalation in a recirculating closed chamber. Hepatic, vascular, and extravascular metabolic constants for metabolism were estimated by fitting the model to the blood time course data from these experiments. The respiratory bioavailability of n-butyl acetate (100% of alveolar ventilation) and n-butanol (50% of alveolar ventilation) was estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting butyl series PBPK model successfully reproduces the blood time course of these compounds following iv administration and inhalation exposure to n-butyl acetate and n-butanol in rats and arterial blood n-butanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to n-butanol in humans. These validated inhalation route models can be used to support species and dose-route extrapolations required for risk assessment of butyl series family of compounds. Human equivalent concentrations of 169 ppm and 1066 ppm n-butanol corresponding to the rat n-butyl acetate NOAELs of 500 and 3000 ppm were derived using the models.