Despite the variety of modern therapies against human brain cancer, in its most aggressive form of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) it is a still deadly disease with a median survival of approximately 1 year. Over the past 2 decades, molecular profiling of low- and high-grade malignant brain tumours has led to the identification and molecular characterisation of mechanisms leading to brain cancer development, maintenance and progression. Genetic alterations occurring during gliomagenesis lead to uncontrolled tumour growth stimulated by deregulated signal transduction pathways. The characterisation of hyperactivated signalling pathways has identified many potential molecular targets for therapeutic interference in human gliomas. Overexpressed or mutated and constitutively active kinases are attractive targets for low-molecular-weight inhibitors. Although the first attempts with mono-therapy using a single targeted kinase inhibitor were not satisfactory, recent studies based on the simultaneous targeting of several core hyperactivated pathways show great promise for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. This review focuses on genetic alterations leading to the activation of key deregulated pathways in human gliomas.