Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications

  title={Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications},
  author={Alar Aab and Fernando Arqueros Mart{\'i}nez and Massimo Aglietta and Ignacio Andr{\'e}s Minaya Flores and Imen Al Samarai and Montserrat Ortiz Ramis and Jaime Rosado V{\'e}lez and Jeffrey C. Allen and Patrick S. Allison and Alejandro Almela and Jos{\'e} Alejandro Castillo and Jaime Alvarez-Mu{\~n}iz and Rafael Alves Batista and Michelangelo Ambrosio and Luis A. Anchordoqui and Luis Alfredo Anchordoqui and Domenico Tegolo and J. J. Beatty and Vanessa Jaqueline Malpartida Aranda and Fernando Arqueros and Hern{\'a}n Asorey and Pedro Assis and Julien Aublin and Morris Ave and Michel Avenier and Guacolda Avila and Nafiun Awal and Alina M. Badescu and P. Facal San Luis and Josef Georg B{\"a}uml and Colin Baus and James J. Beatty and Karl Heinz Dr Becker and Jos{\'e} Antonio Orihuela Bellido and C N Muller Berat and M. E. Bertania and Xavier Bertou and Peter L. Biermann and A. Elliot Peisert and Simon Garry Blaess and Miguel Lavado Blanco and Chiara Bleve and Hartwig Bl{\"u}mer and Martina Boh{\'a}{\vc}ov{\'a} and Denise Boncioli and Corrado Bonifazi and Raffaella Bonino and Nataliia Borodai and J. K. Kulbartz and I. M. Br{\^a}ncuş and Ariel M. Bridgeman and Pedro Brogueira and William Christopher Brown and Peter Buchholz and Andr{\'e} de Godoy Bueno and Stijn J. Buitink and Mario Buscemi and B. Caccianiga and Barbara Caccianiga and Lorenzo Caccianiga and Marina Candusso and Laurentiu Ioan Caramete and Rossella Caruso and Antonella Castellina and Gabriella Cataldi and Lorenzo Cazon and Rosanna Cester and Alberto G{\'o}mez-Tagle Chavez and Alessandro Chiavassa and Jos{\'e} Augusto Chinellato and Jan Chudoba and Marco Cilmo and Roger William Clay and Giuseppe Cocciolo and Roberta Colalillo and Arica L. Coleman and Laura Collica and Maria Rita Coluccia and Ricardo Alves da Conceiç{\~a}o and Fernando R. L. Contreras and Martin James Cooper and R. R. Sauerwein and St{\'e}phane Coutu and Corbin Edward Covault and Jessica Cronin and N. Nierstenhoefer and H. R. Marquez Falcon and B Turner Daniel and Sergio Dasso and R. M. de Almeida and B. R. Dawson and Rogerio Menezes de Almeida and Manlio De Domenico and Sijbrand J. de Jong and J. de Mello Neto and Ivan De Mitri and Jaime de Souza Oliveira and Vitor Dutra de Souza and Luis del Peral and Olivier Deligny and Hans Dembinski and Niraj Dhital and Claudio Di Giulio and Armando di Matteo and Johana Chirinos Diaz and Manuela D{\'i}az Castro and Francisco Diogo and Carola Dobrigkeit and Wendy Docters and Juan Carlos D’Olivo and Alexei V. Dorofeev and Qader Dorosti Hasankiadeh and Maria Teresa Dova and Josef Ebr and R. Engel and Marco Erdmann and Mostafa Erfani and Carlos Our{\'i}vio Escobar and Joao Canhoto Espadanal and Agustina Etchegoyen and Pedro Facal San Luis and Heino D. Falcke and Ke Qiang Fang and Glennys R. Farrar and C. J. Todero Peixoto and Norberto Fazzini and Andrew P. Ferguson and Mariana Anibal Fernandes and Brandon S. Fick and Juan Manuel Figueira and Alberto Filevich and Andrej Filipcic and Benjamin D. Fox and Octavian Fratu and Ulf Fr{\"o}hlich and J. N. Matthews and Takao Fuji and R. F. Gamarra and Bruce Rafael Mellado Garcia and S. T. Garcia Roca and H. Gemmeke and Gianpaolo Garilli and Alberto Gasc{\'o}n Bravo and Florian Sylvain Gate and Hartmut Gemmeke and Piera Luisa Ghia and Ugo Gregorio Giaccari and M. Giammarchi and Maria Giller and Christian Glaser and Henry D. Glass and Mariano G{\'o}mez Berisso and P. F. G{\'o}mez Vitale and Patr{\'i}cia de Jesus Gonçalves and Javier G. Gonzalez and Nerea Gonz{\'a}lez and P. Gouffon and Jacob U. Gordon and Abdolhamid Gorgi and Peter W. Gorham and Philippe Gouffon and Stefan Grebe and Nicholas Griffith and Aurelio F. Grillo and Trent D. Grubb and E. Katsavounidis and Germano P. Guedes and Mat'ias Rolf Hampel and Peter Holthe Hansen and T. A. Harrison and Thomas Alexander Harrison and Sebastian Hartmann and T. C. Greening and A. Haungs and Jay Mathew Lawhorn and Detlef H. Heck and Philip A. Heimann and Alexander E. Herve and Gary C. Hill and Carlos Hojvat and Nicholas Hollon and Ewa Marlen Holt and Piotr Homola and Joerg Rudolf Hoerandel and Pavel Horv{\'a}th and Miroslav Hrabovskẏ and Daniel G. Huber and T. Huege and Antonio Insolia and Paula Gina Isar and Ines Jandt and Sebastian V. Jansen and C. Jarne and Mariela Josebachuili and A. Kaeaepae and Olga Kambeitz and K. H. Kampert and E. Gottschalk and Igor I. Katkov and Bal{\'a}zs K{\'e}gl and Bianca Gerlinde Keilhauer and Azadeh Keivani and E. V. Korolkova and Roger M. Kieckhafer and H. O. Klages and M. Kleifges and Jonny Kleinfeller and Robert Gerd Erich Krause and P. Travnicek and Oliver Kroemer and R. M. Kieckhafer and Daniel Kuempel and Norbert Kunka and R. Lauer and Luca Latronico and Robert Johannes Lauer and Markus Lauscher and Pascal Lautridou and Stefan Le Coz and Mvp Leao and Dominique Lebrun and Ph. Lebrun and Marcelo Augusto Leigui de Oliveira and A Letessier Selvon and T. B{\"a}cker and D. B. Tridapalli and Rosario Garc{\'i}a L{\'o}pez and Angeles L{\'o}pez Ag{\"u}era and Karim Louedec and Julio Lozano Bahilo and L. R. Lu and J. Lozano Bahilo and Marianne Ludwig and Max Malacari and Simone Maldera and Manuela Mallamaci and Jamesl. Maller and A. G. Mariazzi and Paul Matthew Mantsch and Analisa G. Mariazzi and Verci Andr{\'e} Marin and Giovanni Marsella and J. Rodriguez Martino and Lockheed Martin and Humberto Castro Martinez and Oscar Mart{\'i}nez Bravo and Diane Martraire and Jimmy Joel Mas{\'i}as Meza and M. Hrabovsky and Sebastian Mathys and Joshua James Matthews and Ph. Charpentier and Didier Maurel and D. Baroni Maurizio and Eric William Mayotte and Pawel Oskar Mazur and Clementina Baena Medina and Gustavo Adolfo Medina-Tanco and Rebecca Mei{\ss}ner and Maximilien Melissas and Diego Fernando Andrade Melo and Alexander Menshikov and Steven A. Messina and Rishi Meyhandan and M. I. Micheletti and Mar{\'i}a Isabel Micheletti and Ignacio A. Minaya and L. Miramonti and Bogdan Mitrica and S. Mollerach and Warner A. Miller and Maria Monasor and Delphine Monnier Ragaigne and D. Monnier Ragaigne and Christian Morello and M. G. lam Mostafa and C{\'e}lio A. Moura and Marcio Aparecido Muller and Gert R. J. Mueller and Simon Peter M{\"u}ller and Moritz M{\"u}nchmeyer and M. M. Obertino and G. Morales Navarra and Solanye Navas and Petr Ne{\vc}esal and A. F. Barbosa and A Nelles and J{\"u}rgen Neuser and Phuchuy Nguyen and Marcus Niechciol and Lukas Niemietz and Tim Niggemann and H. Schoorlemmer and Vladimir V. Novotny and Giulia Ucchielli and Livingstone Ochilo and Angela V. Olinto and Noelia Santana Pacheco and J. Pallotta and Miroslav Palatka and Juan Pallotta and Nicola Palmieri and Philipp Papenbreer and Gonzalo Parente and Alejandro Parra and Terwilliger Paul and Miroslav Pech and Jan Pekala and R. Zavala Pelayo and I. Pepe and Lorenzo Perrone and Emily B Petermann and Christian J. Peters and Sergio Petrera and Yu. V. Petrov and Jamyang Phuntsok and Ricardo N. Piegaia and Tanguy Pierog and Pablo Gustavo Pieroni and M'ario Pimenta and Valerio Pirronello and M. Concepcion Murieil Platino and Matthias Plum and Alessio Porcelli and Czeslaw Henryk Porowski and Raul Ribeiro Prado and V. Perevozchikov and Michael Prouza and Victor Purrello and Eduardo Jaime Quel and Sven Querchfeld and Samantha Quinn and Julian Rautenberg and Olivier Ravel and Diego Ravignani and Beno{\^i}t Revenu and W. H. Range and Simone Riggi and Markus Risse and Pablo Roberto Ristori and Vincenzo Rizi and W. Rodrigues de Carvalho and Gonzalo Rodriguez Fernandez and Jorge Rub'en Rodriguez Rojo and Mar{\'i}a Dolores Rodr{\'i}guez-Fr{\'i}as and Dmytro Rogozin and German Ros and Javier Rosado and Tomas Rossler and Martin M. Roth and Emmanuelle Roulet and A. Clay R.W. Rovero and Steven J. Saffi and Alexandra Saftoiu and Francesco Salamida and Humberto Magad{\'a}n Salazar and Ahmed Saleh and Francisco Salesa Greus and Gaetano Salina and Federico S{\'a}nchez and F. S{\'a}nchez and Christophe Espı́rito Santo and Edson Mauro Santos and Fr'ed'eric Sarazin and Biswaijt Sarkar and Regina Sarmento and R. Ochoa Sato and Nadja Scharf and Viviana Scherini and H. Schieler and Peter N. Schiffer and Dilnei Schmidt and O Scholten and H. J. Schoorlemmer and Frederic Schroeder and Johannes Joagim Christoffel Schulz and Joseph W. Schumacher and Sergio Sciutto and Alberto Segreto and Mariangela Settimo and Amir Shahidi Shadkam and Ronald Cintra Shellard and Iv{\'a}n Sidelnik and H. H. Silva L{\'o}pez and A. Śmiałkowski and Benedikt Vormwald and Paul Daniel Sommers and J. N. Sorokin and Y. N. Srivastava and Yogendra Narain Srivastava and Samo Stanic and Jaroslaw Stasielak and Martin Stephan and M. Stephan and Francisco Su{\'a}rez and Tiina Suomij{\"a}rvi and Alberto Daniel Supanitsky and Michael S. Sutherland and John D. Swain and Zbigniew Szadkowski and Marek Szuba and Oscar Alejandro Taborda and A. Olmos Tapia and Mathieu Tartare and D. Tcherniakhovski and Vanessa Menezes Theodoro and Samuel C.C. Ting and Carlos Jos{\'e} Todero Peixoto and G. Toma and Basheer Tome and Aurelio Siro Tonachini and Guillermo Torralba Elipe and Diego Torres Machado and A. Tonachini D. Torresi and Emanuela Trovato and Mat{\'i}as Tueros and Ralf Matthias Ulrich and Michael Unger and J. F. Vald{\'e}s Galicia and Jos{\'e} Fco. Vald{\'e}s Galicia and G. A. van Aar and Patrick van Bodegom and Am van den Berg and Sjoert van Velzen and Arjen Ren'e van Vliet and Enrique Rodr{\'i}guez Varela and Bernardo Vargas C{\'a}rdenas and B. Vargas C{\'a}rdenas and J{\'o}se R. V{\'a}zquez and Ricardo Astorga V{\'a}zquez and Darko Veberic and G. W. Van Apeldoorn and Jakub Vicha and Monteverde Videla and Luis Villase{\~n}or and L. Villase{\~n}or and Serguei Vorobiov and Hernan Wahlberg and O Scar Wainberg and David K. Walz and Alan Andrew Watson and Matthias Artur Weber and Klaus Frank Weidenhaupt and K. Weidenhaupt and Frank Werner and Allan Widom and Lawrence Wiencke and Barbara Wilczynska and Henryk Wilczynski and Moritz Will and C. J. Williams and Tobias Winchen and David Wittkowski and Brian Wundheiler and B. Wundheiler and Toshihiro Yamamoto and Guofeng Yuan and B. Zamorano Garcia and B. Asenjo Zamorano and Danilo Zavrtanik and Marko Zavrtanik and Ingyin Khin Zaw and A. Ni{\~n}o de Zepeda and Jinjuan Zhou and M. Zimbres Silva and Michael A. Ziolkowski and Francesca A. Zuccarello},
Using the data taken at the Pierre Auger Observatory between December 2004 and December 2012, we have examined the implications of the distributions of depths of atmospheric shower maximum (X-max), using a hybrid technique, for composition and hadronic interaction models. We do this by fitting the distributions with predictions from a variety of hadronic interaction models for variations in the composition of the primary cosmic rays and examining the quality of the fit. Regardless of what… CONTINUE READING

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