Depth of Presence in Virtual Environments

  title={Depth of Presence in Virtual Environments},
  author={Mel Slater and Martin Usoh and Anthony Steed},
  journal={Presence: Teleoperators \& Virtual Environments},
This paper describes a study to assess the influence of a variety of factors on reported level of presence in immersive virtual environments. It introduces the idea of stacking depth, that is, where a participant can simulate the process of entering the virtual environment while already in such an environment, which can be repeated to several levels of depth. An experimental study including 24 subjects was carried out. Half of the subjects were transported between environments by using virtual… 
A Framework for Immersive Virtual Environments (FIVE): Speculations on the Role of Presence in Virtual Environments
It is proposed that the degree of immersion can be objectively assessed as the characteristics of a technology, and has dimensions such as the extent to which a display system can deliver an inclusive, extensive, surrounding, and vivid illusion of virtual environment to a participant.
Presence within Virtual Environments as a Function of Visual Display Parameters
It was shown that the survey questions evaluating several aspects of presence produced reliable responses across questions and studies, indicating that the questionnaire is a useful tool when evaluating presence in virtual environments.
Effects of Presence on Spatial Perception in Virtual Environments
The influence of the sense of presence on spatial perception in a multi-sided back projection virtual reality system was investigated. Such an influence could diminish the reliability of spatial
A Further Assessment of Factors Correlating with Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments
Significant physiological indications of stress after the appearance of the pit in all three environments were found, but did not find significant differences in the magnitude of the physiological stress response between the different environment conditions.
Simulating virtual environments within virtual environments as the basis for a psychophysics of presence
This concept can be used as the basis for a psychophysics of presence in VEs, the sensation of being in the place depicted by the virtual environment displays (Place Illusion, PI), and also the illusion that events occurring in thevirtual environment are real (Plausibility Illusion, Psi).
The Influence of Dynamic Shadows on Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments
The experiment suggests that for visually dominant subjects, the great the extent of shadow phenomena in the virtual environment, the greater the sense of presence.
Charting presence in virtual environments and its effects on performance
Virtual reality (VR) involves an attempt to create an illusion that the user of the VR system is actually present in a synthetic (usually computer-generated) environment. Little is known about how
Using a preamble to increase presence in digital virtual environments
It is suggested that incorporating a familiar digital preamble environment as a prelude to the target DVE enables DVE designers and enthusiasts to increase presence without having to invest in more expensive hardware, but it could also augment existing immersive technology.
A Virtual Presence Counter
A new measure for presence in immersive virtual environments (VEs) that is based on data that can be unobtrusively obtained during the course of a VE experience is described and lends support to interaction paradigms that are based on maximizing the match between sensory data and proprioception.
Immersion, presence and performance in virtual environments: an experiment with tri-dimensional chess
The results suggest that egocentric subjects performedbetter than exocentric, and those in the more realistic environment performed better than those inThe less realistic environment, although female performance improved with higher spatial ability test score.


Representations Systems, Perceptual Position, and Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments
The data analysis does suggest a relationship between reported sense of presence, preferred representation system, perceptual position, and an interaction effect between these and the virtual body factor.
Presence in immersive virtual environments
  • M. Slater, M. Usoh
  • Computer Science, Art
    Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium
  • 1993
A pilot experimental study of presence in IVEs, a contribution to a project involved in constructing a system for architectural walkthrough, where architects and their clients are able to navigate through and effect changes to a virtual building interior.
The Virtual Treadmill: A Naturalistic Metaphor for Navigation in Immersive Virtual Environments
The experiment suggests that the walking in place method may enhance the participant’s sense of presence, but that it is not advantageous with respect to the efficiency of navigation.
Presence and distal attribution: phenomenology, determinants, and assessment
Users of virtual and teleoperator display systems are said to experience "being in" the simulated or remote environment; this experiential state is commonly referred to as "presence" or
Defining virtual reality: dimensions determining telepresence
This paper attempts to cast a new, variable-based definition of virtual reality that can be used to classify virtual reality in relation to other media, based on concepts of "presence" and "telepresence".
The heaven and earth virtual reality: Designing applications for novice users
A novice environment called the Novice Design Environment is described, in which users can perform basic interior decoration design, and an evaluation of tools for supporting novice interaction and rules of thumb for building virtual realities for novices are presented.
The "visual cliff".
This simple apparatus is used to investigate depth perception in different animals and makes it possible not only to control the optical and other stimuli (auditory and tactual, for instance) but also to protect the experimental subjects.
Nature and origins of virtual environments: a bibliographical essay
The Presence of Field Geologists in Mars-Like Terrain
  • M. McGreevy
  • Geology
    Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments
  • 1992
Methods of ethnographic observation and analysis have been coupled with object-oriented analysis and design concepts to begin the development of a clear path from observations in the field to the design of virtual presence systems, and some of these redundancies have been characterized.
The analysis of binary data
Binary response variables special logistical analyses some complications some related approaches more complex responses. Appendices: Theoretical background Choice of explanatory variables in multiple