Lifetime hypomanic symptoms in remitted patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.
Depressive episodes are a common and potentially severe occurrence in schizophrenia but are poorly recognised by psychiatrists. Coherent diagnostic criteria are necessary to improve diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. To evaluate the usefulness of the ICD-10 category of post-schizophrenic depression (PSD) and the DSM-IV category of postpsychotic depressive disorder of schizophrenia (PDDS), 80 clinically stable schizophrenic outpatients were evaluated with two independent measures of depression, a dimensional measure and a categorical measure. One rater applied the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive episodes (MDE), and the other applied the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale. Thirteen patients (16.3%) met criteria for MDE. All of them met the DSM-IV PDDS research criteria, but only two patients matched the ICD-10 PSD criteria, which require that the episode occurred in the 12 months after the last psychotic episode. There was no significant difference in the incidence of depressive episodes within 12 months after an acute psychotic episode and outside this time period. The data suggest that depressive episodes in schizophrenia are not restricted to the first year following the psychotic episode. Useful criteria for depressive episodes in schizophrenia should avoid a temporal relation with the psychotic episode.