Depressive Symptoms and Longitudinal Changes in Cognition: Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging.

Abstract

Elevated depressive symptoms (DS) are associated with incident mild cognitive impairment and probable dementia in postmenopausal women. We examined the association of elevated DS with domain-specific cognitive changes and the moderating role of cardiovascular risk factor severity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 2221 elderly women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging were separated into those with (N = 204) and without (N = 2017) elevated DS. The DS and multidomain cognitive outcomes were measured annually for an average follow-up of 5.04 years. Women with elevated DS showed baseline multidomain cognitive deficits but longitudinal declines in global cognition only. Persistent DS was related to greater global cognition, verbal knowledge and fluency, and memory declines. Significant DS-CVD interactions were observed cross-sectionally (but not longitudinally) for figural memory and fine motor speed. Future studies should investigate the role of nonvascular mechanisms linking DS and cognitive decline.

DOI: 10.1177/0891988714522697

Cite this paper

@article{Goveas2014DepressiveSA, title={Depressive Symptoms and Longitudinal Changes in Cognition: Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging.}, author={Joseph S. Goveas and Mark A. Espeland and Patricia E. Hogan and Hilary Aurora Tindle and Regina A. Shih and Jane Morley Kotchen and Jennifer G. Robinson and Deborah E. Barnes and Susan M. Resnick}, journal={Journal of geriatric psychiatry and neurology}, year={2014}, volume={27 2}, pages={94-102} }