The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: A Review with a Theoretical and Empirical Examination of Item Content and Factor Structure
The validity, reliability, and factor structure of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) was examined with 253 patients seen for neuropsychological evaluation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). All patients completed the CES-D; 31 also completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and 17 completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-II (MMPI-II). The CES-D demonstrated good concurrent, construct validity, significantly correlating with the BDI (r = .673, p < .0001) and the MMPI-II (Depression Scale T score r = .536, p = .027). The CES-D also demonstrated good internal consistency (coefficient alpha = .8195) and split-half reliability (Spearman–Brown r = .8284). Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a four-factor solution that accounted for 56.01% of the variance. The factor structure differed from the originally reported factor structure, and indicated that somatic difficulties were strongly associated with dysphoric affect in TBI patients. The CES-D is a valid and reliable screening instrument for use with TBI patients.