Depletion, Degradation, and Recovery Potential of Estuaries and Coastal Seas

  title={Depletion, Degradation, and Recovery Potential of Estuaries and Coastal Seas},
  author={Heike K. Lotze and Hunter S. Lenihan and Bruce J. Bourque and Roger Bradbury and Richard G. Cooke and Matthew Curry Kay and Susan M. Kidwell and Michael Xavier Kirby and Charles H. Peterson and Jeremy B. C. Jackson},
  pages={1806 - 1809}
Estuarine and coastal transformation is as old as civilization yet has dramatically accelerated over the past 150 to 300 years. Reconstructed time lines, causes, and consequences of change in 12 once diverse and productive estuaries and coastal seas worldwide show similar patterns: Human impacts have depleted >90% of formerly important species, destroyed >65% of seagrass and wetland habitat, degraded water quality, and accelerated species invasions. Twentieth-century conservation efforts… 

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