Dependence, misuse, and beliefs regarding use of hypnotics by elderly psychiatric patients taking zolpidem, estazolam, or flunitrazepam

  title={Dependence, misuse, and beliefs regarding use of hypnotics by elderly psychiatric patients taking zolpidem, estazolam, or flunitrazepam},
  author={Cheng-Fang Yen and Chih-Hung Ko and Yu-Ping Chang and Cheng-Ying Yu and Mei‐Feng Huang and Y-C Yeh and Jin‐Jia Lin and Cheng-Sheng Chen},
  journal={Asia‐Pacific Psychiatry},
To examine the prevalence rates and correlates of dependence on, misuse of, and beliefs regarding use of hypnotics in elderly psychiatric patients with long‐term use of zolpidem, estazolam, or flunitrazepam. 

Factors Associated With High Dose Benzodiazepines Use in Long-Term Users With Depressive and/or Anxiety Disorders

Summary: We expect the findings draw attendees’ attention on the high dose of benzodiazepines (BZDs) use among this population and its risk factors, and providing information for healthcare providers

Non-medical and illicit use of psychoactive drugs

The preclinical pharmacology of the current antipsychotic drugs is discussed focussing both on the therapeutic and on side effects of these drugs, including neurological, behavioural and metabolic side effects.

A case of zolpidem dependence with extremely high daily doses

The case of a zolpidem‐dependent patient who consumed it in quantities of 2400 mg/day, a quantity not reported anywhere in literature and around 240 times more than its usual prescribed daily dosage is presented.

Chronic hypnotic use at 10 years—does the brand matter?

One in five new users of sedative-hypnotics will become a long-term user, but only 0.5% will become excessive users.

The epidemiology of benzodiazepine misuse: A systematic review.

‘Z-trip’? A Comprehensive Overview and a Case-series of Zolpidem Misuse

  • L. OrsoliniS. Chiappini U. Volpe
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Clinical psychopharmacology and neuroscience : the official scientific journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • 2021
According to the findings, zolpidem should be prescribed with the same caution as BZDs, especially in patients with a history of drug abuse or in the elderly, and monitoring of zolPidem use in selected populations is warranted.

Validation of the Arabic and French Versions of a Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) Questionnaire on Tranquilizer Misuse

The availability of a cross-cultural adapted and multilingual validated questionnaire would stimulate research on tranquilizer misuse and showed that the selected model of Knowledge and Attitude constructs has adequate fit indicators and encompassed three factors that showed acceptable internal reliability.



The use of benzodiazepine monotherapy for major depression before and after implementation of guidelines for benzodiazepine use

This study aimed to evaluate whether sole prescribing of BZDs for major depression decreased after the implementation of the BZD guidelines.

Epidemiological evidence for a low abuse potential of zolpidem.

It is concluded that zolpidem is a relatively safe drug compared to conventional hypnotics.

Abuse and dependence potential for the non-benzodiazepine hypnotics zolpidem and zopiclone: a review of case reports and epidemiological data.

The findings offer the conclusion that zolpidem and zopiclone are relatively safe drugs, however, as both drugs are psychotropic drugs, patients with a history of abuse or dependence and those with psychiatric diseases seem to be at increased risk of abuse of these agents.

Long‐term use of zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon among Danish elderly and the association with sociodemographic factors and use of other drugs

To estimate the degree of long‐term use of zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon among Danes aged 65 and older and the association with sociodemographic factors and use of other drugs.

Relative abuse liability of hypnotic drugs: a conceptual framework and algorithm for differentiating among compounds.

Concern about recreational abuse, inappropriate long-term use, or adverse effects should not deter physicians from prescribing hypnotics when clinically indicated, according to the primary clinical implication.


The results stress the need to take a more elaborate, person-centered view of dependence, and suggest six indicators of dependence.

Correlates of benzodiazepine dependence in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

Insomnia, antidepressant use and alcohol dependence may increase the risk of benzodiazepine dependence among individuals who use Benzodiazepines.

Long term benzodiazepine use for insomnia in patients over the age of 60: discordance of patient and physician perceptions

There is a significant discordance between older patients and their physicians regarding the perceptions of benefits and risks of using benzodiazepines for insomnia on a long term basis.

Zolpidem dependence case series: possible neurobiological mechanisms and clinical management

Molecular biology, via possible mutations on GABA receptors, may provide some answers as to why eight cases of zolpidem abuse and dependence without criminal record, without history of substance abuse, with minor psychiatric disorders, who took zolPidem after physicians prescription took it not craving its sedative, but its anxiolytic and stimulating action, which helped them to cope with everyday activities.

Magic bullets for insomnia? Patients' use and experiences of newer (Z drugs) versus older (benzodiazepine) hypnotics for sleep problems in primary care.

There were no significant differences in patients' perceptions of efficacy or side-effects reported by those on Z drugs compared to patients taking benzodiazepines.