- Published 2009

The third law of thermodynamics is formulated precisely: all points of the zero temperature manifold Γ0 are physically adiabatically inaccessible from the state space of a simple system. In addition to implying the unattainability of absolute zero in finite time (or “by a finite number of operations”), it admits as corollary, under a continuity assumption, that all points of Γ0 are adiabatically equivalent. We argue that the third law is universally valid for all macroscopic systems which obey the laws of quantum mechanics and/or quantum field theory, and therefore places a relevant constraint on present and future approximate theories of quantum gravity, from which (classical) black holes emerge by suitable limits. PACS Numbers: 05.70. -a, 04.70. Dy

@inproceedings{Wreszinski2009DepartamentoDF,
title={Departamento de F{\'i}sica Matem{\'a}tica,},
author={Walter F . Wreszinski and Elcio Abdalla},
year={2009}
}