Dentitions of 208 prehistoric skeletal specimens from five geographic regions of Oregon were studied to describe their dental status. Comparisons were made of the incidence of specific pathologies among regions and between jaws. Maxillary premortem tooth losses were significantly higher than mandibular tooth loss. A relatively high caries incidence occurs in samples from the Willamette Valley and Klamath Basin, where plant foods were used aboriginally to a significant extent. A high frequency of abscesses was recorded in the Klamath Basin and the Lower Columbia River sample, which also showed the highest levels of attrition. Each of the five subsamples shows patterns of dental pathology consistent with former use of natural resources.