The high rate of tooth destruction of Greek children due to caries has been shown from several studies. The dental needs, the type and the cost of treatment of these children and especially those of the district of Athens have not been evaluated before. The purpose of this study was to determine these needs and evaluate the aforementioned parameters. The results of this study have shown that from the 1166 children aged 6-12 years of age, 71.6% have some problems with caries. There has been an increasing rate of the total dental needs of primary and permanent teeth from the age of 6 through the age of 12, for both sexes, although the dit index decreased after the age of 8 years. This finding partially shows that the intervention and the degree of treatment provided was very minor since the problem continued to the permanent dentition with the teeth becoming decayed immediately after they erupt. However, might be considered proof of the above the finding that the dental needs of the first permanent molar was only 1.4% at the age of 6 years while at the age of 12 years increased at 66.6%. The oral hygiene status of the children was moderate to bad for 85.9% of them and only 18.5% had a good oral hygiene. 36 per cent of the children had some orthodontic problem while a 7.4% of the total number of the children revealed crossbites. The cost of treatment and prevention per child was calculated as well and it was found that 68.7 (U.D.T.) units of Dental Treatment or 12.365 drs are required. The results of this study have shown the type the degree and cost of treatment of the dental needs of these children and the necessity for immediate intervention of treatment and comprehensive preventive measures.