BACKGROUND Dental mutilations (DM) were and are still common among people in Africa. The purpose of this study was to examine DM in 33 skulls from Cameroon, which have been collected around the turn of the 20th century (anthropological collection, Berlin Museum of Medical History). MATERIALS AND METHODS From the files of the museum, locations and/or tribal origin were recorded. DM classification described by De Almeida was used (1957). RESULTS DM of the inverted V-shaped type was most common (30.3%). Pulp exposure was seen in 10 cases (30.3%). Periapical ostitis/radicular cysts were seen in nine cases (27.3%). General loss of alveolar bone was seen in all cases with a marked loss of the maxillary anterior labial alveolar bone plate in six cases (18.2%). CONCLUSIONS DM may result in alveolar bone pathology characterised by inflammatory changes such as periapical ostitis or formation of radicular cysts.