- Published 2003 in Inorganic chemistry

Density functional theory (DFT) at the hybrid B3LYP level has been applied to the germanium clusters Ge(9)(z) clusters (z = -6, -4, -3, -2, 0, +2, and +4) starting from three different initial configurations. Double-zeta quality LANL2DZ basis functions extended by adding one set of polarization (d) and one set of diffuse (p) functions were used. The global minimum for Ge(9)(2)(-) is the tricapped trigonal prism expected by Wade's rules for a 2n + 2 skeletal electron structure. An elongated tricapped trigonal prism is the global minimum for Ge(9)(4)(-) similar to the experimentally found structure for the isoelectronic Bi(9)(5+). However, the capped square antiprism predicted by Wade's rules for a 2n + 4 skeletal electron structure is only 0.21 kcal/mol above this global minimum indicating that these two nine-vertex polyhedra have very similar energies in this system. Tricapped trigonal prismatic structures are found for both singlet and triplet Ge(9)(6)(-), with the latter being lower in energy by 3.66 kcal/mol and far less distorted. The global minimum for the hypoelectronic Ge(9) is a bicapped pentagonal bipyramid. However, a second structure for Ge(9) only 4.54 kcal/mol above this global minimum is the C(2)(v)() flattened tricapped trigonal prism structure found experimentally for the isoelectronic Tl(9)(9)(-). For the even more hypoelectronic Ge(9)(2+), the lowest energy structure consists of an octahedron fused to two trigonal bipyramids. For Ge(9)(4+), the global minimum is an oblate (squashed) pentagonal bipyramid with two pendant Ge vertices.

@article{King2003DensityFT,
title={Density functional theory study of nine-atom germanium clusters: effect of electron count on cluster geometry.},
author={R. Bruce King and Ioan Silaghi-Dumitrescu},
journal={Inorganic chemistry},
year={2003},
volume={42 21},
pages={6701-8}
}