Cardiovascular changes after administration of aerosolized salbutamol in horses: five cases
Beta-adrenoceptors are important regulators of cardiac function and their characteristics are known to change in human and canine diseased myocardium. This study aimed to determine the density and subtypes of beta-adrenoceptors in the normal and failing equine ventricular myocardium. Membrane preparations of the left papillary muscles were incubated with increasing concentrations of the nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist [3H]-CGP12177. Saturable and reversible binding of [3H]-CGP12177 to myocardial membranes was demonstrated with Kd values (+/- s.d.) of 0.49 +/- 0.40 and 0.43 +/- 0.22 nmol/l and Bmax values of 93.4 +/- 20.5 and 110.0 +/- 21.2 and fmol/mg protein for normal (n = 19) and heart failure (n = 10) tissues, respectively. Heart failure had no significant effect on the density of ventricular beta-adrenoceptors. The cardiac beta-adrenoceptors were further characterised by studying displacement of [3H]-CGP12177 (0.6 nmol/l) with the beta1-selective antagonists CGP20712A and the beta2-selective antagonist ICI118.551. In normal ventricular muscle, CGP20712A was 26 times more potent than ICI118.551 (Ki values 30.4 +/- 24.8 and 814.1 +/- 485.2 nmol/l, respectively). In heart failure cases, CGP 20712A curves were monophasic with a Ki value of 45.6 +/- 39.7 nmol/l. ICI 118.551 curves were biphasic in 5 horses where 11-31% of the cardiac beta-adrenoceptors had a high affinity for ICI 118.551. These data suggest that the normal equine ventricular myocardium possesses predominately beta1-adrenoceptors, with no evidence for co-existence of a significant population of beta2-adrenoceptors. The density of beta-adrenoceptors did not appear to change in heart failure, but the appearance of receptors with a high affinity for ICI118.551 may suggest that, in some cases, heart failure increases the expression of beta2-adrenoceptors in equine ventricular myocardium. This study provides an insight into the role of the adrenergic system in heart disease in the horse. Further studies in this area are warranted.