Deng Chengxiu:Another Type of Qing Liu (scholar-officials)

  title={Deng Chengxiu:Another Type of Qing Liu (scholar-officials)},
  author={Wang Wei-jian},
The political and academic background of the scholar officials determined their social circle,which again influenced and decided their contents of speech.Deng Chengxiu,though a scholar out of the circle,also ranked as one of these scholars in his own way.The failure and success of Deng mirrored the complexity and diversity of speech,and reflected the fact that Empress Dowager Cixi and other ministers were in a dilemma in using these scholar officials.