Demonstration of xanthine oxidase in human heart.

  title={Demonstration of xanthine oxidase in human heart.},
  author={S. Abadeh and P. Case and R. Harrison},
  journal={Biochemical Society transactions},
  volume={20 4},
The enzyme, xanthine oxidase, has become a focus of research activity because of its proposed role as a source of destructive free radicals in ischaemia reperfusion injury [l]. The presence of xanthine oxidase in human heart is, however, controversial in that several groups [2-51 have failed to find significant enzyme activity, despite two reports to the contrary [6,7] and its accepted presence in rat and dog hearts. We now report the immunoprecipitation of xanthine oxidase from post-mortem… Expand
NADH oxidase activity of human xanthine oxidoreductase--generation of superoxide anion.
The steady-state kinetics of NADH oxidation and superoxide production, including inhibition by NAD, by the dehydrogenase forms of both enzymes, are analysed in terms of a model involving two-stage recycling of oxidised enzyme. Expand
Allopurinol, Xanthine Oxidase, and Cardiac Ischemia
It seems that the suppression of XO activity ameliorates myocardial inefficiency, and poor vascular flow may present innovative contributions to the future treatment of I/R heart failure patients. Expand
A re-evaluation of the tissue distribution and physiology of xanthine oxidoreductase
  • A. Kooij
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Histochemical Journal
  • 2004
The present review summarizes information that has become available about Xanthine oxidoreductase and Interpretations of contradictory findings are presented in order to reduce confusion that still exists with respect to the role of this enzyme in physiology and pathology. Expand
A re-evaluation of the tissue distribution and physiology of xanthine oxidoreductase
SummaryXanthine oxidoreductase is an enzyme which has the unusual property that it can exist in a dehydrogenase form which uses NAD+ and an oxidase form which uses oxygen as electron acceptor. BothExpand
Novel myofilament Ca2+-sensitizing property of xanthine oxidase inhibitors.
Ca2+-sensitizing effect underlies the preservation of contractility observed with an allopurinol+MPG antioxidant cocktail in a model of stunned myocardium, and is identified as the lead compounds of a novel class of inotropic agents. Expand
Mechanisms of nitrite reduction in ischemia in the cardiovascular system: therapeutic potential
Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on nitrite biology, describing the effects, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic potential of nitrite in I/R. Nitrite, at low μM concentrations, substantiallyExpand
Imbalance Between Xanthine Oxidase and Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Pathways Underlies Mechanoenergetic Uncoupling in the Failing Heart
Data show that both NOS and XO signaling systems participate in the regulation of myocardial mechanical efficiency and that upregulation of XO relative to NOS contributes to mechanoenergetic uncoupling in heart failure. Expand
Evidence for an essential role of reactive oxygen species in the genesis of late preconditioning against myocardial stunning in conscious pigs.
In the conscious pig, antioxidant therapy completely blocks the development of late preconditioning against stunning, indicating that ROS play an important pathogenetic role in postischemic dysfunction in the porcine heart despite the lack of xanthine oxidase. Expand
The Noncanonical Pathway for In Vivo Nitric Oxide Generation: The Nitrate-Nitrite-Nitric Oxide Pathway
This review will provide a detailed description of the pathways involved in the bioactivation of both nitrate and nitrite in vivo, their functional effects in preclinical models, and their mechanisms of action, as well as a discussion of translational exploration of this pathway in diverse disease states characterized by deficiencies in bioavailable nitric oxide. Expand
Underlies Mechanoenergetic Uncoupling in the Failing Heart Imbalance Between Xanthine Oxidase and Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Pathways
Inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) in failing hearts improves cardiac efficiency by an unknown mechanism. We hypothesized that this energetic effect is due to reduced oxidative stress and criticallyExpand