Demonstration of the Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Substance P (NK1) Receptor Antagonist in Major Depression
Eledoisin and substance P are members of a class of peptides termed tachykinins. They share a similar spectrum of biological activities but their relative potencies in various pharmacological assays differ. We have investigated whether there is more than one receptor for these tachykinins in rat brain cortex membranes. 125I-Bolton Hunter-conjugated eledoisin specifically binds to rat brain cortex membranes with high affinity. The binding is inhibited over 95% by unlabeled eledoisin (6.6 microM). Scatchard analysis of the binding of this ligand is curvilinear suggesting that there are two binding sites with KD values of 0.9 +/- 0.7 nM and 20 +/- 10 nM. We tested various analogs and fragments of substance P and eledoisin for their ability to inhibit the binding of 125I-Bolton Hunter-conjugated eledoisin and 125I-Bolton Hunter-conjugated substance P to these membranes. The following peptides are more potent as inhibitors of the 125I-Bolton Hunter-conjugated eledoisin binding site than of the 125I-Bolton Hunter-conjugated substance P binding site: nonradioactive Bolton Hunter-conjugated eledoisin (greater than 100-fold), eledoisin (12-fold), kassinin (22-fold), neuromedin K (greater than 58-fold), and pyroglutamyl substance P(6-11)hexapeptide (4-fold). In contrast, substance P (21-fold), physalaemin (8-fold), and substance P methyl ester (1200-fold) were more potent as inhibitors of 125I-Bolton Hunter-conjugated substance P binding. These results suggest that these two ligands may bind to distinct receptors. 125I-Bolton Hunter-conjugated substance P binds specifically to rat parotid cell receptors, but 125I-Bolton Hunter-conjugated eledoisin does not, indicating that parotid cells contain only one of the receptor subtypes. The cortex membrane binding of both ligands is stimulated by low concentrations of MnCl2 (ED50 = 0.05 mM) and is inhibited by guanylyl-5'-(beta, gamma-imido)diphosphate (IC50 = 0.5 microM).