Demonstration of progesterone receptor‐mediated gonadotrophin suppression in the human male

  title={Demonstration of progesterone receptor‐mediated gonadotrophin suppression in the human male},
  author={Brian M Brady and R A Anderson and David W. Kinniburgh and David T. Baird},
  journal={Clinical Endocrinology},
objective Synthetic gestogens in combination with testosterone have potential as a male hormonal contraceptive, predominantly acting by augmenting suppression of gonadotrophin secretion. Little is known, however, of the effects of gestogens in the male. Gestogens have affinity for both androgen and progesterone receptors but the relative contribution of action at these two receptors in gonadotrophin suppression remains unclear. In this study the effects of progesterone, with no significant… 

Tissue expression of the nuclear progesterone receptor in male non-human primates and men.

Analysis of the genomic progesterone receptor by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR indicates that a male contraceptive based on gestagens might have some effects on other tissues, such as the epididymis, prostate and mammary gland, and exclude direct genomic effects of Gestagens at the spermatogenic level.

Progesterone: the forgotten hormone in men?

  • M. OettelA. Mukhopadhyay
  • Biology, Medicine
    The aging male : the official journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
  • 2004
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Progesterone in gender-affirming therapy of trans women

The present article explores potential clinical implications from the addition of bioidentical progesterone to gender-affirming treatment of trans women and speculates on possible benefits for gender transitioning.

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Progesterone is a potent, multi-faceted endocrine agent with an expanding therapeutic profile and a minimal scientific database for evaluating safe use during pregnancy.

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A better understanding of the endocrine and genetic regulation of spermatogenesis is necessary and may allow for new treatment paradigms, as the development of an effective, consumer-friendly male contraceptive remains challenging.

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No male hormonal contraceptive is ready for clinical use and assessment of azoospermia can vary by sensitivity of the method used, so future trials need more attention to the methodological requirements for RCTs.

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Progesterone appears to be the key factor for health not only in women, but also in men and children, in patients with depression, sleep disorders, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord neurodegeneration, brain trauma, CVA, epileptic seizures, prostate hyperplasia, erectile dysfunction and more.

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Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade.



Aromatase inhibition in the human male reveals a hypothalamic site of estrogen feedback.

In the human male, estrogen has dual sites of negative feedback, acting at the hypothalamus to decrease GnRH pulse frequency and at the pituitary to decrease responsiveness to GnRH.

Progestin-androgen combination regimens for male contraception.

The combination of cyproterone acetate and TE has been found to result in a rapid, profound suppression of spermatogenesis, without side effects, through its ability to block both the follicle-stimulating hormone and androgen effects at the testis level.

The antigonadotropic activity of a 19-nor-progesterone derivative is exerted both at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels in women.

NOMA, a 19-nor-P derivative, has a potent antigonadotropic activity exerted at the hypothalamic level, inhibiting ovulation in NC women and in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, reports an unexpected action of NOMA at the pituitary level.

Sex steroid control of gonadotropin secretion in the human male. II. Effects of estradiol administration in normal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-deficient men.

Direct evidence is provided that E2 inhibits gonadotropin secretion at the pituitary level in men and suggest that the pituitsary is the most important, and possibly the sole, site of negative feedback of estrogens in men.

Differential regulation of gonadotropin secretion by testosterone in the human male: absence of a negative feedback effect of testosterone on follicle-stimulating hormone secretion.

Both treatment regimens were associated with a significant increase in gonadotropin levels and distinguish the feedback effects of T that that are direct (i.e. mediated by the androgen receptor) vs. indirect (mediated by aromatization to E(2).

Dose-finding study of oral desogestrel with testosterone pellets for suppression of the pituitary-testicular axis in normal men.

The combination of oral desogestrel with depot testosterone results in profound suppression of gonadotrophin secretion without adverse metabolic or behavioural effects and is a promising approach to hormonal male contraception.

Inhibin increases and progesterone decreases receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in ovine pituitary culture.

The data suggest that P may act during the luteal phase to decrease receptors for GnRH during the sheep estrous cycle to permit GnRH receptors to rise under the influence of inhibin (and estradiol) to boost gonadotroph responsiveness to GnRH so the LH surge may occur to its fullest.

Oral progestogen combined with testosterone as a potential male contraceptive: additive effects between desogestrel and testosterone enanthate in suppression of spermatogenesis, pituitary-testicular axis, and lipid metabolism.

The combination of oral progestogens with low dose T is a promising approach to achieve effective reversible male contraception and was highly effective in suppressing pituitary-testicular functions in adult men.

Progesterone and testosterone in combination act in the hypothalamus of castrated rams to regulate the secretion of LH.

Progesterone is capable of acting centrally with testosterone to suppress the secretion of LH in castrated rams and that cells containing mRNA for progesterone receptors are located in the hypothalamus of rams in the vicinity of GnRH neurons.