Demonstration of a Silicon Waveguide Optical Circulator

@article{Mitsuya2013DemonstrationOA,
  title={Demonstration of a Silicon Waveguide Optical Circulator},
  author={Kota Mitsuya and Yuya Shoji and Tetsuya Mizumoto},
  journal={IEEE Photonics Technology Letters},
  year={2013},
  volume={25},
  pages={721-723}
}
A four-port optical circulator based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer is fabricated in a silicon nanowire waveguide. A magneto-optical garnet is directly bonded to the silicon waveguide using a surface activated bonding technique. Four-port circulator operation is demonstrated with a maximum isolation of 15.3 dB at a wavelength of 1531 nm.