The relationship between economic growth and population trends is explored in theoretical terms. The author suggests that populations tend to grow exponentially at first, then level off, and finally decline. These theoretical concepts are then considered in the light of Romanian demographic trends. The author proposes that the optimum demographic trends for Romania would be achieved by means of a crude birth rate of 18 to 20 per 1,000 and an annual growth rate of one percent. Policy measures designed to realize these targets are discussed.