Democratic School Engagement and Civic Participation among European Adolescents: Analysis of Data from the IEA Civic Education Study

  title={Democratic School Engagement and Civic Participation among European Adolescents: Analysis of Data from the IEA Civic Education Study},
  author={Judith V. Torney-Purta and Carolyn Henry Barber},
  journal={JSSE - Journal of Social Science Education},
In the 1980s and early 1990s, it became clear that establishing new democracies in Europe-and maintaining older ones-involves more than putting in place an amended constitution or hearing exhortations about democracy from a fresh set of leaders. Citizens needed to understand the workings of a democratic society and how individuals relate to each other and work together to affect change. These values needed to be reflected at levels ranging from the young person in school to the adult citizen… 

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