Democracy and Legitimacy in the European Union Revisited: Input, Output and ‘Throughput’

  title={Democracy and Legitimacy in the European Union Revisited: Input, Output and ‘Throughput’},
  author={Vivien A. Schmidt},
  journal={Political Studies},
  pages={2 - 22}
  • V. Schmidt
  • Published 1 March 2013
  • Political Science
  • Political Studies
Scholars of the European Union have analyzed the EU's legitimacy mainly in terms of two normative criteria: output effectiveness for the people and input participation by the people. This article argues that missing from this theorization is what goes on in the ‘black box’ of governance between input and output, or ‘throughput’. Throughput consists of governance processes with the people, analyzed in terms of their efficacy, accountability, transparency, inclusiveness and openness to interest… 
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