Pasteur's principle 'isolate, inactivate, inject' was the starting point for the successful development of many vaccines, but now, new ways for antigen discovery and vaccine administration present a challenge. Whereas vaccines against polio, measles and influenza are common for many parts of the world, the development of thermostable vaccines not being injected would ease vaccine distribution in developing countries. This review summarizes the general principles of vaccination and looks at common and novel vaccination targets. It also gives a rationale for using other routes than parenteral administration, such as mucosal or transdermal vaccination, and focuses on novel vaccination vehicles, as well as their formulation and stability aspects. Additionally, the review looks at novel application devices for the administration of vaccines.