Deliberation, cognitive diversity, and democratic inclusiveness: an epistemic argument for the random selection of representatives

  title={Deliberation, cognitive diversity, and democratic inclusiveness: an epistemic argument for the random selection of representatives},
  author={H{\'e}l{\`e}ne Landemore},
This paper argues in favor of the epistemic properties of inclusiveness in the context of democratic deliberative assemblies and derives the implications of this argument in terms of the epistemically superior mode of selection of representatives. The paper makes the general case that, all other things being equal and under some reasonable assumptions, more is smarter. When applied to deliberative assemblies of representatives, where there is an upper limit to the number of people that can be… 
Inclusion and the Epistemic Benefits of Deliberation
Contrary to the popular belief, I argue that a more inclusive polity does not necessarily conflict with the goal of improving the epistemic capacities of deliberation. My argument examines one
Beyond the Fact of Disagreement? The Epistemic Turn in Deliberative Democracy
Abstract This paper takes stock of a recent but growing movement within the field of deliberative democracy, which normatively argues for the epistemic dimension of democratic authority and
Empathetic Understanding and Deliberative Democracy
What are the epistemic benefits of democracy? According to the ‘epistemic democrats’, democratic procedures such as deliberation and voting are valuable in part because they produce epistemically
On Minimal Deliberation, Partisan Activism, and Teaching People How to Disagree
ABSTRACT Mutz argues that there is an inverse correlation between deliberation and participation. However, the validity of this conclusion partly depends on how one defines deliberation and
Interpretative Interactions: An Argument for Descriptive Representation in Deliberative Mini-publics
ABSTRACT Mini-publics are institutions that invite a small group of citizens to deliberate on a specific political issue. Deliberation scholars find them attractive because they use random sampling
Democratic Public Justification
Abstract Democratic institutions are appealing means of making publicly justified social choices. By allowing participation by all citizens, democracy can accommodate diversity among citizens, and by
The Role and the Future of Deliberative Mini-publics: A Citizen Perspective
The last decades have witnessed a spread of democratic innovations. Chief among them are deliberative mini-publics that gather randomly selected citizens to discuss salient public issues with the aim
Taking the Goals of Deliberation Seriously: A Differentiated View on Equality and Equity in Deliberative Designs and Processes
Deliberation must be immunized against coercive power by a baseline of equality. But what does the requirement of equality mean, in practice, for organizers designing deliberative events and forums?
Judging Deliberation: An Assessment of the Crowdsourced Icelandic Constitutional Project
This study explores deliberation as a lived experience between individuals engaged in putatively deliberative practices. While face-to-face deliberation is well documented, there are fewer empirical
Democracy as Heuristic: The Ecological Rationality of Political Equality
In this paper, Landemore explores one defense of political equality: that uncertainty about the nature of the political questions a polity will face require not only maximal inclusion but also


Deliberative Democracy and the Epistemic Benefits of Diversity
ABSTRACT It is often assumed that democracies can make good use of the epistemic benefits of diversity among their citizenry, but difficult to show why this is the case. In a deliberative democracy,
Reasoning is for Arguing: Understanding the Successes and Failures of Deliberation
Theoreticians of deliberative democracy have sometimes found it hard to relate to the seemingly contradictory experimental results produced by psychologists and political scientists. We suggest that
Epistemic aspects of representative government
The Federalist, justifying the Electoral College to elect the president, claimed that a small group of more informed individuals would make a better decision than the general mass. But the Condorcet
Deliberative democracy or agonistic pluralism
Abstract: This article examines the current debate about the nature of democracy and discusses the main theses of the approach called 'deliberative democracy' in its two main versions, the one put
The Logic of Random Selection
This essay lays out the common reasoning underlying a diversity of arguments for decision making using lotteries. This reasoning appeals to the sanitizing effects of ignorance. Lotteries ensure that
Deliberative Polling as the Gold Standard
The Deliberative Polls of James Fishkin and Robert Luskin represent today the gold standard of attempts to sample what a considered public opinion might be on issues of political importance. 1 Those
Disaggregating Deliberation’s Effects: An Experiment within a Deliberative Poll
Using data from a randomized field experiment within a Deliberative Poll, this paper examines deliberation’s effects on both policy attitudes and the extent to which ordinal rankings of policy
Lot as a Democratic Device of Selection
Lot is a possible alternative to election as a democratic means of selection. The prime historical instance of its political use is classical Athens. Lot was an important expression of the Athenian
Designing deliberative democracy : the British Columbia Citizens' Assembly
Introduction: democratic renewal and deliberative democracy Mark E. Warren and Hilary Pearse 1. Who should govern who governs? The role of citizens in reforming the electoral system Dennis F.
How elitism undermines the study of voter competence
Abstract A form of elitism undermines much uniting on voter competence. The elitist move occurs when an author uses a self‐serving worldview as the basis for evaluating voters. Such elitism is