Deliberate Practice and Performance in Music, Games, Sports, Education, and Professions: A Meta-Analysis

  title={Deliberate Practice and Performance in Music, Games, Sports, Education, and Professions: A Meta-Analysis},
  author={Brooke N. Macnamara and David Z. Hambrick and Frederick Louis Oswald},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  pages={1608 - 1618}
More than 20 years ago, researchers proposed that individual differences in performance in such domains as music, sports, and games largely reflect individual differences in amount of deliberate practice, which was defined as engagement in structured activities created specifically to improve performance in a domain. This view is a frequent topic of popular-science writing—but is it supported by empirical evidence? To answer this question, we conducted a meta-analysis covering all major domains… Expand

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