Deliberate Practice

  title={Deliberate Practice},
  author={Guillermo Campitelli and Fernand R. Gobet},
  journal={Current Directions in Psychological Science},
  pages={280 - 285}
Deliberate practice (DP) occurs when an individual intentionally repeats an activity in order to improve performance. The claim of the DP framework is that such behavior is necessary to achieve high levels of expert performance. The proponents of the framework reject evidence that suggests that other variables are also necessary to achieve high levels of expert performance, or they claim that the relationship between those variables and expert performance is mediated by DP. Therefore, the DP… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Checkmate to deliberate practice: the case of Magnus Carlsen
The role of practice in the acquisition of expertise has been a key research question at least since Bryan and Harter's study on expertise in Morse telegraphy and the fact that individuals such as Roger Federer in tennis, Michael Jordan in basketball, Usain Bolt in sprint or Michael Schumacher in auto racing have so outrageously dominated their sport throws considerable doubt on the deliberate practice framework.
It Takes More Than Practice and Experience to Become a Chess Master: Evidence from a Child Prodigy and Adult Chess Players
Ericsson’s theory of deliberate practice and Chase and Simon’s recognition-action theory both hold that the key to reaching master level performances in chess is to engage in at least 10 years or
Practicing for the Future: Deliberate Practice in Early Childhood.
Analysis of 4- to 7-year-olds' ability to selectively practice a skill that would be useful in the near future, as well as their broader understanding of the role of deliberate practice in skill acquisition, reveals important developments in children's future-directed behavior beyond the preschool years.
Understanding deliberate practice in preschool-aged children
Testing children's ability to selectively practise a behaviour that was going to be useful in future and to reason about the role of practice in skill formation suggest that both may draw on similar cognitive developmental changes.
Cognitive Processes and Development of Chess Genius: An Integrative Approach
This chapter presents the practice‐plasticity‐processes model, which incorporates neural plasticity and cognitive processes (domain‐specific pattern recognition and heuristics) as explanatory variables and shows that the model was able to capture the existence of prodigies and three out of four other effects encountered in the chess expertise literature.
Expertise vs. talent
Abstract: The study of extraordinary performance has been carried out almost independently in two research traditions, the first emphasising practice and the second emphasising talent. The practice


The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance.
A theoretical framework is proposed that explains expert performance in terms of acquired characteristics resulting from extended deliberate practice and that limits the role of innate (inherited) characteristics to general levels of activity and emotionality.
Deliberate Practice Is Necessary but Not Sufficient to Explain Individual Differences in Piano Sight-Reading Skill
Evidence indicates that WMC is highly general, stable, and heritable, and thus the view that expert performance is solely a reflection of deliberate practice is called into question.
Deliberate practice and acquisition of expert performance: a general overview.
  • K. A. Ericsson
  • Psychology
    Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
  • 2008
The principles of DP established in other domains, such as chess, music, typing, and sports, are drawn upon to provide insight into developing expert performance in medicine.
The role of domain-specific practice, handedness, and starting age in chess.
The results suggest that practice is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the acquisition of expertise, that some additional factors may differentiate chessplayers and nonchessplayers, and that starting age of practice is important.
The making of an expert.
A set of acting exercises for managers that remarkably enhanced executives' powers of charm and persuasion are created, showing how deliberate practice can improve their ability to win over their employees, their peers, or their board of directors.
Deliberate practice and the modifiability of body and mind: Toward a science of the structure and acquisition of expert and elite performance.
Some researchers in sports attribute elite performance to genetic talent. However, they do not offer complete genetic accounts that specify the causal processes involved in the activation and
Visuospatial abilities of chess players.
No evidence for a correlation between chess skill and visual memory ability in a group of adult chess players is found, suggesting that there is surprisingly little evidence that Chess skill and visuospatial ability are associated in adults and may be relatively unimportant factors in the long-term acquisition of chess skill.
The role of deliberate practice in chess expertise
SUMMARY Two large, diverse samples of tournament-rated chess players were asked to estimate the frequency and duration of their engagement in a variety of chess-related activities. Variables