Delayed complications of sulfur mustard poisoning in the skin and the immune system of Iranian veterans 16–20 years after exposure

  title={Delayed complications of sulfur mustard poisoning in the skin and the immune system of Iranian veterans 16–20 years after exposure},
  author={Mehrdad Hefazi and Masoud Maleki and Mahmoud Mahmoudi and Abbas Tabatabaee and Mahdi Balali-Mood},
  journal={International Journal of Dermatology},
Background  Extensive cutaneous burns caused by alkylating chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) have been associated with the severe suppression of the immune system in humans. We aimed to study the association between late cutaneous and immunological complications of SM poisoning. 

Impact of pruritus on quality of life in sulfur mustard‐exposed Iranian veterans

This study examines the impacts of sulfur mustard on the skin of chemically injured veterans and finds that chronic pruritus is one of the foremost negative impacts of this agent.

Mycosis fungoides two decades after exposure to sulphur mustard: a follow‐up of 1100 victims

Sulphur mustard (SM) is an alkylating chemical warfare agent which causes acute and chronic injuries to the eyes, skin, lung and respiratory tract.

Therapeutic options to treat mustard gas poisoning – Review

In this review, chemical properties, mechanism of actions and their effects on each organ, clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation of the actions triage, and treatment of injuries have been described.

Management of sulfur mustard-induced chronic pruritus: a review of clinical trials

Clinical important findings on the management of SM-induced chronic skin complications with a particular focus on pruritus as the most prevalent symptom that has a significant impact on patients’ quality of life are highlighted.

Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Its Complications in Iranian Veterans

Despite extensive research that has been conducted on Iranian veterans during the past decades, major gaps continue to remain in the sulphur mustard literature, and there is also a paucity of information on the medical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of sulphUR mustard poisoning, a subject that greatly challenges the medical professions.

Long-term skin damage due to chemical weapon exposure

Sulfur mustard (2,2-dichlorodiethyl sulfide), the protagonist of vesicant chemical weapons, was first used in July 1917 and has been used in several conflicts.

Dermatologic Aspects of Sulfur Mustard Exposure

This chapter tries to describe the current knowledge on the potential mechanisms which mediate the SM actions on skin, the clinical manifestations in the acute phase of exposure and years later (delayed or chronic ones), histopathology of SM-exposed skin and the potential therapeutic countermeasures.

Delayed head and neck complications of sulphur mustard poisoning in Iranian veterans

The purpose of this study was to document the delayed toxic effects of sulphur mustard in Iranian veterans, focussing on head and neck complications, andcinomas of the thyroid and nasopharynx in three patients with sulfur mustard exposure are reported for the first time.

Current status of the acquired immune system of Iranian patients with long-term complications of sulfur mustard poisoning

The results showed that most of the parameters of adaptive immune system of the veterans were currently within the normal ranges, however, changes in the proliferation index (PI) of lymphocytes showed problems with the lymphocytes which cannot be proliferated appropriately.

Chronic health effects of sulphur mustard exposure with special reference to Iranian veterans

Immunological and neurological dysfunction, as well as the relationship between SM exposure and mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity are important fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranian veterans with chronic health effects of SM poisoning.



Chemical warfare. Cutaneous lesions from mustard gas.

Skin manifestations of mustard gas. A clinical study of 535 patients exposed to mustard gas.

The skin manifestations of patients exposed to mustard gas during the Iraq-Iran war were reviewed and no mortality was observed and all patients were cured in a period of 15 to 45 days.

Clinical management of mustard gas casualties

About 170 chemical warfare casualties, presumably victims of sulfur mustard exposure, were evacuated from Iran to European hospitals during 1984-86, and 65 of these casualties who were treated at 9 European hospitals are summarized in this report.


A study was made on five cases of multiple Bowen's disease observed in former workers of a poison gas factory which was in operation from 1929 to 1945 at Okunojima, Hiroshima, Japan. The age of these

Medical Defense Against Mustard Gas: Toxic Mechanisms and Pharmacological Implications

Books and internet are the recommended media to help you improving your quality and performance.

The Medical Aspects of Mustard Gas Poisoning

This volume is a belated account of investigations carried out at Michigan during the war, and tells, with a wealth of detail which seems needless, of the effects of β-β-dichlorethyl sulphide, or mustard “gas,” on various animals and on men accidentally gassed with it at factories in America where the substance was manufactured for gas offensive purposes during thewar.

Chemical warfare agents: toxicology and treatment

  • K. Watson
  • Political Science
    Medical History
  • 1997
The large-scale use of chemical warfare agents first occurred during World War I (the "chemists' war"), and was thereafter repeated at irregular intervals, most recently during the Iran-Iraq conflict