Deimatism: a neglected component of antipredator defence
- PsychologyBiology Letters
The differences among deimatism, aposematism, and forms of mimicry, and their ecological and evolutionary implications are discussed, and outstanding questions critical to progress are highlighted.
Testing the feasibility of the startle-first route to deimatism
- Biology, PsychologyScientific Reports
An experimental system in which naïve domestic chicks forage for artificial deimatic prey is used to test the feasibility of ‘the startle-first hypothesis’ of the evolution of deimatism, and shows that both predictions hold, but only when the movement is fast.
Towards a tractable working hypothesis for deimatic displays
- Environmental ScienceAnimal Behaviour
Why blue tongue? A potential UV-based deimatic display in a lizard
- BiologyBehavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
It is shown that the rear of their tongue is UV-blue and more conspicuous to predators compared to the tip and that this ‘full-tongue display’ is only triggered in the final stages of a predatory attack.
The evolution of startle displays: a case study in praying mantises
- Biology, PsychologyProceedings of the Royal Society B
It is found that startle displays and morphological traits were phylogenetically conserved, whereas behavioural traits were highly labile, and Surprisingly, body size was not correlated with display presence or complexity in phylogenetically controlled analyses.
Prey with hidden colour defences benefit from their similarity to aposematic signals
- BiologyProceedings of the Royal Society B
It is found that the survival benefits of both deimatic and flash displays were substantially higher against predators that had previously learned to associate the hidden colours with unprofitability than against naive predators.
Dynamic Skin Patterns in Cephalopods
- Biology, Environmental ScienceFront. Physiol.
This study examines the nature, context, and potential functions of dynamic patterns across diverse cephalopod taxa and presents examples of simple flashing or flickering patterns, to highly complex passing wave patterns involving multiple skin fields.
Spiders mimic the acoustic signalling of mutillid wasps to avoid predation: startle signalling or Batesian mimicry?
- BiologyAnimal Behaviour
Conspicuous colours reduce predation rates in fossorial uropeltid snakes
- Environmental SciencePeerJ
Support is provided for the hypothesis that the conspicuous colours of these snakes reduce predation, possibly because these colours advertise unprofitability due to long handling times.
Evolution of macroglands and defensive mechanisms in Leiuperinae (Anura: Leptodactylidae)
- BiologyZoological Journal of the Linnean Society
A histological analysis of dorsal and lumbar skin and revised the colour patterns, defensive behaviours and glandular secretions to study the diversity and evolution of anti-predator mechanisms associated with macroglands provide phylogenetic evidence for the startle-first hypothesis.
SHOWING 1-9 OF 9 REFERENCES
Postattack deimatic display in the mountain katydid, Acripeza reticulata
- Environmental ScienceAnimal Behaviour
The deimatic reaction in the praying mantis Stagmatoptera biocellata
- BiologyZeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie
It is concluded that the over-all effect of the display is to frighten the foe, and that the movements involved in the display are not coordinated with each other in a closed-circuit system.
Deimatic Display in the European Swallowtail Butterfly as a Secondary Defence against Attacks from Great Tits
- Environmental SciencePloS one
It is concluded that the swallowtail’s startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines.
The role of eyespots as anti‐predator mechanisms, principally demonstrated in the Lepidoptera
- Environmental ScienceBiological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
The role of eyespots as antipredator mechanisms has been discussed since the 19th Century and the necessity to consider the potential influence of sexual selection on lepidopteran wing patterns, and the genetics and development of eyespot formation is highlighted.
Defence in Animals. A Survey of Anti-predator Defences, M. Edmunds. Longman (1974), £4·95 (paper)
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Interactions between predators and prey
- Interactions between predators and prey
- Am. Nat