Degradation of the synthetic dye amaranth by the fungus Bjerkandera adusta Dec 1: inference of the degradation pathway from an analysis of decolorized products

Abstract

We examined the degradation of amaranth, a representative azo dye, by Bjerkandera adusta Dec 1. The degradation products were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), visible absorbance, and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (ESI-TOF-MS). At the primary culture stage (3 days), the probable reaction intermediates were 1-aminonaphthalene-2,3,6-triol, 4-(hydroxyamino) naphthalene-1-ol, and 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(4-sulfophenyl) hydrazinyl] benzenesulfonic acid. After 10 days, the reaction products detected were 4-nitrophenol, phenol, 2-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenesulfonic acid, 4-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid, and 3,4′-disulfonyl azo benzene, suggesting that no aromatic amines were created. Manganese-dependent peroxidase activity increased sharply after 3 days culture. Based on these results, we herein propose, for the first time, a degradation pathway for amaranth. Our results suggest that Dec 1 degrades amaranth via the combined activities of peroxidase and hydrolase and reductase action.

DOI: 10.1007/s10532-011-9478-9

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@article{Gomi2011DegradationOT, title={Degradation of the synthetic dye amaranth by the fungus Bjerkandera adusta Dec 1: inference of the degradation pathway from an analysis of decolorized products}, author={Nichina Gomi and Shuji Yoshida and Kazutsugu Matsumoto and Masayuki Okudomi and Hiroki Konno and Toru Hisabori and Yasushi Sugano}, journal={Biodegradation}, year={2011}, volume={22}, pages={1239-1245} }