Biotransformation of benzonitrile herbicides via the nitrile hydratase–amidase pathway in rhodococci
Biological conversion of the herbicide bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile) was studied in a batch culture ofPseudomonas putida by using HPLC. The process had a cometabolic character and proceeded only in the presence of another, simultaneously metabolizable, carbon and energy source. The intensity of degradation correlated with the growth rate, the degradation stopping when the cosubstrate becomes exhausted or the pH value of the medium falls below 6.5. In a medium with glucose, no lag phase longer than one day was observed concerning growth, sugar and herbicide consumption and formation of metabolic herbicide derivatives (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzamide and 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid). In a medium with ribose, the initial lag of the above processes took 2 d. No formation of other degradation products was detected. Growth inhibition was proportional to the concentration of bromoxynil.