This work presents the results of our studies on the decolorization of aqueous azo dye Reactive black 5 (RB5) solution combining an advanced oxidation process (Fenton's reagent) followed by an aerobic biological process (mediated by the yeast Candida oleophila). Under our conditions, initial experiments showed that Fenton's process alone, as well as aerobic treatment by C. oleophila alone, exhibited the capacity to significantly decolorize azo dye solutions up to 200 mg/L, within about 1 and 24h, respectively. By contrast, neither Fenton's reagent nor C. oleophila sole treatments showed acceptable decolorizing abilities for higher initial dye concentrations (300 and 500 mg/L). However, it was verified that Fenton's reagent process lowered these higher azo dye concentrations to a value less than 230 mg/L, which is apparently compatible with the yeast action. Therefore, to decolorize higher concentrations of RB5 and to reduce process costs the combination between the two processes was evaluated. The final decolorization obtained with Fenton's reagent process as primary treatment, at 1.0 x 10(-3)mol/L H(2)O(2) and 1.0 x 10(-4)mol/L Fe(2+), and growing yeast cells as a secondary treatment, achieves a color removal of about 91% for an initial RB5 concentration of 500 mg/L.