Deformation and fragmentation of human red blood cells in turbulent shear flow.

@article{Sutera1975DeformationAF,
  title={Deformation and fragmentation of human red blood cells in turbulent shear flow.},
  author={Salvatore P Sutera and M H Mehrjardi},
  journal={Biophysical journal},
  year={1975},
  volume={15 1},
  pages={
          1-10
        }
}
By means of glutaraldehyde fixation, human erythrocytes are "frozen" while suspended in turbulent shear flow. As the shearing is increased in steps from 100 to 2,500 dyn/cm2, the deformed cells evolve gradually toward a smooth ellipsoidal shape. At stresses above 2,500 dyn/cm2, approximately, fragmentation of the cells occurs with a concomitant increase in free hemoglobin content of the suspending medium. The photographic evidence suggests that the cells rupture in tension in the bulk flow. 
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