PURPOSE The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of definitive radiotherapy (RT) plus regional hyperthermia (HT) and investigate the potential contribution of HT to clinical outcomes in patients with prostate carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS Following our institution's treatment protocol, HT was combined with RT to improve clinical outcomes in selected patients with high-risk or very high-risk prostate cancer. Data from 82 patients treated with RT plus HT and 64 patients treated with RT alone were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS Median follow-up duration was 61 months. The 5-year biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) rate for the 82 patients treated with RT plus HT was 78%, whereas bDFS for the 64 patients treated with RT alone was 72%; this difference was not significant. Among the 75 patients treated with RT plus HT who underwent intra-rectal temperature measurements, higher thermal parameters were significant prognostic indicators of improved bDFS by univariate analysis. A higher CEM43 °CT90 thermal parameter and a T stage of T1-2 were significant prognostic factors based on multivariate analysis. The 5-year bDFS rates for the 40 patients with a higher CEM43 °CT90 and the 64 patients treated with RT alone were significantly different, whereas 5-year bDFS for the 35 patients with a lower CEM43 °CT90 and the 64 patients treated with RT alone were not. CONCLUSIONS The addition of HT with higher thermal parameters to RT may improve bDFS for patients with high-risk or very high-risk prostate cancer. These findings also demonstrate the importance of careful selection of treatable patients with higher thermal parameters.